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  • 00:05

    JOHN CRESWELL: Let me talk a little bitabout qualitative data collection.We have a research question, and we collect some data in orderto address that question.The real beauty of qualitative researchis that the possibilities for data collectionare very extensive.

  • 00:27

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: I tend to group them into four categories.We've got open-ended interviews, open-ended observations,documents, - now documents could be like private diaries,could be newspaper articles, could be minutes froma meeting, public and private documents -

  • 00:49

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: and then the fourth category that's really emerging thesedays would be audio/visual material.So for example, I could collect picturesand interpret the pictures.Ask people to draw pictures of how they arelearning qualitative research.That would be interesting to see what the pictures arethat they draw.

  • 01:09

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: Or videotaping.Let's videotape people in the classroom participatingin qualitative research and organizethat source of information into some themes.Or let's put a camera in someone's handsand have them take pictures of whatit means to learn qualitative research in this classroom.

  • 01:33

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: So we have all these various ways,using websites, using email messages, using text messages.There's a lot of digital means that are developing nowthat become part of our qualitative researchand I think that's really the beauty of itis coming up with creative ways.

  • 01:53

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: There's a technique called photovoice,and that's where you ask people to take pictures of something--the phenomenon, the topic you're looking at--and then you interview them about that picturethat they take.It's a very popular approach in someof the countries around the world right now calledphotovoice.

  • 02:13

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: So we have this large, large collectionof different methods.Now, once we collect that data, wewant to put it into some categories.I talked about coding and themes.And we can report a qualitative study.

  • 02:33

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: That's just reporting the themes.But to move it one step further, to make it a little bitmore sophisticated project, we need to think about oneof the designs that are availablein qualitative research.And I'm going to use this example of we'rein a classroom learning qualitative research.

  • 02:58

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: I could just summarize the themesthat I hear from the interviews of people that are reflectingon what it means to do qualitative research,or I could put it into one of the traditional designs thathave been used for years in qualitative research.Now, I'm going beyond just a theme approach, whichis a very basic approach, to a little bit more

  • 03:20

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: of an advanced approach using one of these designs.There's a lot of designs out there in qualitative research,one would be narrative design.And in narrative, what I do is, I look for people's stories.So what I would take from these interviews is,I'd be looking for stories about how

  • 03:41

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: people talk about learning qualitative researchin this classroom.And rather than getting everybody's stories,I'd focus maybe on two or three people,a small number of people that aretelling very different stories.One person is telling a story about learningqualitative research in the classroom

  • 04:05

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: through conversations with their colleagues seatedright next to them.Another person is telling a storyabout learning qualitative research through the PowerPointslides that the instructor is using.So that's narrative research, and there'sa whole body of literature on howto do a good, narrative qualitative study.

  • 04:25

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: We can all slow turn this into what's called phenomenology.This is another qualitative design.Phenomenology takes a little different tact.Rather than look at individual stories,it looks at all of the people in the classroom,a fair number of people that I interviewedand ask, what do they have in common?

  • 04:47

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: What did they learn in common?In other words, I'm trying to takeall the different perspectives and bring it downto some common ideas.So maybe the common thing would bethat they all learned from reading the Sage textbook,reading the book.And maybe as I talked to a lot of people,

  • 05:09

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: that is the best way that they learned.What did they all have in common,and is there are some agreement on what they have in common?I can also turn this into a grounded theory qualitativestudy.Grounded theory is building a theoryfrom the views of participants, from the bottom up.

  • 05:31

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: So I would interview the people, and Iwould think about what process was going on in the classroom.Maybe it's a process of first becoming used to the class,then getting over their fears of qualitative research,and then moving on to learning some of the basics.And I would actually develop an explanation

  • 05:53

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: of how this process unfolds in learning qualitative research,so building an explanation or a theorybased upon the individual views of participants.Or I might do an ethnography.All these different approaches come out of different fields.Ethnography, something that's been used by

  • 06:15

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: anthropologists for years.Basically what they say is, let's take this classand let's call them a culture-sharing group,a group that has developed ways of talking, behaving, acting.As this class moves on, everyone sits in the same seat

  • 06:36

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: time after time after time.In other words, where you sit becomesa way of participating in this culture.So ethnography simply looks at whatare the patterns of behavior, ways people talk,ways people communicate that develop overtime in a group that comes closer and closer.

  • 06:57

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: Now, if it's the first time in the semesteror first or second class, there won'tbe time to really build these ways of acting.But by the time I get to the fifth, the sixth,the seventh class meeting of this qualitative class,people will start to develop ways of acting.

  • 07:18

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: We all know that we'll take a break halfway through.We all know we're going to sit in certain seats.We all know that we're going to have a PowerPoint presentation,and we expect these things.And so this culture begins to develop over time.That's ethnography.Now, a case study is somewhat similar.

  • 07:38

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: A case study, I'm going to develop an understandingof this class as a case.It's bounded.The case is bounded by this room,by the people that are in it.And what I'll try to do here is to describehow this class works, a description of the case,

  • 07:59

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: and then I might point out some themesthat emerged from talking to the students during the semester.So I'm building an in-depth portrait of this classso that if I present my case study to you,you will be able to see how this class works.

  • 08:21

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: I may describe the number of males and femalesin the class and the age in the class and the contentin the class.And I may look across that descriptionto come up with certain themes.Everyone responds by bringing their laptop computer,and this is how they're beginning

  • 08:42

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: to learn qualitative research.So all we have here are some very different waysof moving past just coming up with themes and using,employing what we call qualitative research designs.And we can choose the design that best fits the problem.

  • 09:03

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: If I want to study the process, Imight look at a grounded theory design.If I want to get to these stories of individualswhere I get that really great detail of people talkingabout what it's like to be in this class,I might use narrative.If I want to talk about how this class kind of comes

  • 09:24

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: together and becomes a cohesive sharing group, cultural group,I might use ethnography.There's different ways of approaching it.Now, this doesn't exhaust the possibilities.I could use other approaches.There's an approach where you lookat the language of how people talk about things,

  • 09:45

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: like discourse analysis.I can look at how people are participating in the learningprocess, like responding to questions,by having small group activities,by having small discussions, a participatory approach.There are others that are out there.

  • 10:05

    JOHN CRESWELL [continued]: But these are some of the ways in which I have nowtaken my data, moved beyond themes,and really built the study into a distinct, qualitative design.

Video Info

Publisher: SAGE Publications Inc.

Publication Year: 2015

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Qualitative data collection, Research design

Keywords: classroom climate; photography; text messaging

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



In this segment Professor John Creswell begins by outlining the types of data that can be collected for qualitative research. His presentation then expands to include descriptions of research designs that can applied to a qualitative research project.

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Types of Qualitative Research

In this segment Professor John Creswell begins by outlining the types of data that can be collected for qualitative research. His presentation then expands to include descriptions of research designs that can applied to a qualitative research project.

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