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  • 00:00

    [MUSIC PLAYING][Developing Research Integrity Educationand Counseling Guidelines]

  • 00:17

    KRISHMA LABIB: My name is Krishma Labiband I'm a PhD Student at the Amsterdam University MedicalCenter Department of Ethics, Law and Humanities.I have a background in neuroscience and bioethics,and after becoming acquainted with the problems of sciencewhile doing my Master's, I became increasingly interested

  • 00:38

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: in helping to fix these issues.And this is how I got involved in the field of researchintegrity and also the Standard OperatingProcedures for Research Integrity project,which my PhD is embedded in.

  • 00:50

    JOERI TIJDINK: My name is Joeri Tijdink.I'm an Assistant Professor at Amsterdam UMC Departmentof Ethics, Law and Humanities.And besides my work as a Researcher,I'm also a Psychiatrist.And I'm involved in the SOPs4RI project as one of the workpackage leaders and I'm really--

  • 01:11

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: I really believe in that research integrityand fostering responsible research practice,I can actually make a difference in academiabecause if we conduct better research and more trustworthyresearch we can even do more and reach further with research.Where to start when we talk about research integrity

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    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: training, education and counseling?We have to highlight "The European Code of Conduct."And in this code research integrity training,education training and awareness iscrucial for research institution,in fostering research integrity.And this ALLEA Code states that "Research institutions

  • 01:53

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: should ensure that researchers receiverigorous training in research design, methodologyand analysis."And that "Research institutions and organizationsdevelop appropriate and adequate training in ethics and researchintegrity to ensure that all concernedare made aware of relevant codes and regulations."

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    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: [How can we ensure research institutions uphold theserequirements?]

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    KRISHMA LABIB: Currently there are many organizationsthat develop research integrity courses for PhD studentsglobally.However, research integrity education cannot just beequated to a single course offered to PhD studentsbecause it requires continuous trainings, both formal ones--

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    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: for instance, workshops or courses--but also informal training, things like discussionsover coffee time, or during department meetingsabout research integrity and quality.And furthermore, to be successful,research integrity education should not justtarget junior researchers but also other target groups,

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    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: including bachelor's students, master's students,research support staff, senior researchers, et cetera.Additionally, research integrity education by itselfis not sufficient to raise awarenessabout research integrity because after training, researcherswill need to have access to research integrity counseling

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    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: so that they can receive the most up-to-date adviceabout the specific questions they encounterin their own research practice to becomefully informed about their research integrity challenges.

  • 03:39

    JOERI TIJDINK: How can we ensure thatthe increasing amount of research integrity educationefforts--such as new courses, workshops, or a new training developed--which are used in the diversity of training approachesgoals and methods will not become fragmentedthroughout Europe?

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    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: So to provide a successful research integrity educationand sufficiently raise awareness about research integrity,institutions should develop an overarching, coherentinstitutional research integrity educationstrategy that safeguards continuous training on researchstaff and provides guiding steps,

  • 04:19

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: how to build and implement a counseling strategy.And to do this, institutions are still lostand they need some more guidance on howto develop this strategy.[Who should these new SOPs4RI guidelines aim to support?]

  • 04:38

    KRISHMA LABIB: Therefore, in this studywe aimed at co-creating guidelines on researchintegrity education and counseling togetherwith research administrators, but also research integrityeducation experts.And more specifically, we wanted to create guidelineson the following topics.The training of pre-doctorate researchers, so, bachelor,

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    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: master, and PhD students.The training of post-doctorate and senior researchers,and then also the training of support staffand research integrity counseling and advice.[How did you carry out the co creation workshops?]

  • 05:22

    JOERI TIJDINK: To reach our aims we conductedfour co-creation workshops together with 16 researchintegrity education experts and research administrators,representing the 11 different countries in Europe.Our participants consisted of research managers,senior researchers, research heads,and scientific coordinators.

  • 05:42

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: And the workshops lasted approximately three hours,were led by trained facilitator and a co-facilitator,and took place in a Zoom setting.If you want to know more about co-creation methodology,you can have a look at our other video.We used inductive and deductive thematic analysisto analyze the results of the workshops.

  • 06:04

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: [How can institutions implement RI training for pre doctorateresearchers?]

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    KRISHMA LABIB: Please note that in this video the pointswe mention about the guidelines do notprovide a comprehensive representationof what the guidelines cover, since we will onlydive into some important points thatwere raised by the guidelines.So, what can institutions do to implement research integrity

  • 06:31

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: education and training for pre-doctorate researchers?Our participants discussed that it's importantthat research integrity education isstarted as early as possible, already the bachelor and masterlevel.So institutions should do this by incorporating researchintegrity training into the research curriculum

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    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: of university students.Regarding PhD students, both formal and informal trainingwill be needed.So regarding formal training, our participantsmentioned that PhD students should receivea basic mandatory course about research integrityat the start of their trajectory,and that they should then have access

  • 07:14

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: to follow-up specialized courses on things like data managementor image processing, which can help them to learn deeperabout specific research integrity topics.Additionally, the participants mentionedthat institutions should pay attentionto making sure that a formal training also takes place.

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    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: So for instance, by supporting department meetings thatdiscuss research integrity.Another point that was emphasized as importantwas to hire suitable trainers for the trainingof pre-doctorate researchers.So, what are suitable trainers?There were various features that were mentioned.

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    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: So suitable trainers are people whohave sufficient expertise in the training topics,or research integrity if it's a basic research integritytraining, or even data management or imageprocessing if it's a more specialized training.And also, trainers should be respected by the traineesand they should be enthusiastic and good communicators.

  • 08:20

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: And likely, to make sure that the right expertise isin place, a team of research integrity trainersis needed at an institution.Our participants also really preferredto emphasize practice over theoryin all training that is given to pre-doctorate researchers.So that would entail focusing less about research ethics

  • 08:41

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: theory and focusing more on the daily practice of researchersand their questions and their struggleswith gray areas in research.Interestingly, motivating researchersto take part in training was also a very important pointthat was raised by our participantsand in our guidelines.It was thought that incentivizing training

  • 09:03

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: via tangible incentives, like digital badges,would already be very helpful in making surethat pre-doctorate researchers are enthusiastic about takingpart in training.Finally, it was also highlighted that trainingshould be evaluated to make sure that they'recontinuously improved.

  • 09:23

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: And it was thought that doing evaluationson objective measures, such as training effectiveness,would be very difficult, if not impossible.So our participants suggested insteadthat institutions should use subjective measuresfor evaluating trainings.So for instance, looking at how usefultrainees rate a course to be.

  • 09:44

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: [How can institutions implement RI training for post doctorateand senior researchers?]

  • 09:51

    JOERI TIJDINK: Many of the topicsthat Krishma just mentioned are alsoapplicable for training for post-doctorate and seniorresearchers.There's a lot of overlap.Although, this overlap, we still want to highlight some points.So formal and informal approaches are necessary,

  • 10:13

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: and mandatory training for those startingnew positions, supplemented by follow-up coursesbecause regulations and codes maychange every two, three years.For example, about data management or developmentsin open science practices.That's needed.But it's also needed that you organize informal meetings that

  • 10:34

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: touch upon the research and thingsthat are important for the specific institutions.It's also important that you motivate participants.And this can be difficult because currently thereare hardly any incentives.Tangible incentives, such as badges, may not work,so several strategies are mentioned by the participants.For example, masterclasses rather than courses,

  • 10:56

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: or create some links to funding, to promotions, or, for example,to ethics reviews.Even scoreboards, we know researchersare very competitive, so scoreboards may help as well.And instead of having trainers decide the training approachand content for this target group,a bottom-up approach to training is probablymore warranted because where training

  • 11:18

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: needs analysis is conducted to discuss whatpost-doctorate and senior researchers needhelp with in trainings.Institutions should not forget that mutual influenceon research culture and research integrity training.On the one hand, they should ensure that the researchculture is responsible because itis a prerequisite for training.

  • 11:39

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: For example, you need open communicationat your department and people shouldfeel comfortable about talking about research integrity.And on the other hand, training cancontribute towards improving the research culture because youcan teach by example.And you should do, so for instance,by addressing how to discuss research integrityissues with colleagues.There are several methods for this.

  • 12:01

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: [How can research institutions train support staff in RI?]

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    KRISHMA LABIB: And what about the training of support staff?What are institutions responsibilities there?In our co-creation workshops, our participantshighlighted that training of support staffis not a top-down thing, where support staff willreceive a class offered by a trainer,but rather, that peer learning plays

  • 12:28

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: a really important role here.So the best way to train support staffis to bring people from various departmentstogether to discuss their challenges regarding researchintegrity.To share their rules and to share their expertise.So for instance, you could bring peoplefrom different departments, like your data managementdepartment, your library, your research integrity committee,

  • 12:50

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: your research integrity officers, and togetherthey can discuss their rules for research integrityand learn from each other.Additionally, train the trainer trainingsare required for research integritytrainers so that they can learn not only the basics of researchintegrity training but also how to motivate studentsand how to have the right didactical skills

  • 13:12

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: and use the right training methods to really fosterthe learning of research integrity.And for these kinds of trainings,both for the research integrity trainersbut also other types of support staff,it was highlighted that multidisciplinary contexts aremost appropriate because trainers and support staffshould be able to help researchers

  • 13:34

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: from different kinds of backgrounds.And doing this in a multidisciplinary settingcan help them to also learn about specific researchintegrity challenges in various disciplines.Moreover, in this guideline, the importanceof European and international research integrity networkswas also stressed as being really important.

  • 13:55

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: So our participants said that research institutionsshould really support European networks, such as ones thatare focusing on training trainers of research integrityor ones that provide networks for research integrity officersso that sharing of best practicescan happen so that it's possible for support staff

  • 14:16

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: to learn from others and other institutionsand other countries.Additionally, it was thought that it's really importantto provide frequent training for support staff,at least as frequent as new updates and research happen,or there are new updates and regulations or policies,because that's the only way to make sure that your support

  • 14:39

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: staff know what they need to knowto be able to support your researchers with integrity.For this specific guideline, the importanceof institutional top-down supportwas also deemed very important.So our participants said that to make sure that institutionswill be able to find the right amount of resources

  • 15:01

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: and personnel to implement research integrityeducation successfully, it's importantthat they put research integrity and research integrityeducation as a key value.And it was also mentioned that evaluationsare important for the training of support staff.So by evaluating trainings, it's possible to obtain

  • 15:22

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: more knowledge about what can make trainingsmore successful, which will lead to further improvements.[How should research institutions offer RIcounselling and advice?]

  • 15:36

    JOERI TIJDINK: So then we continue with the final point,final guideline that we created, and that's research integritycounseling advice.And this is somewhat new because there is nota lot of evidence in the literature.But what we found and what the participantsaid was that you should appoint trained,official, confidential counselorswhom researchers can turn to when

  • 15:57

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: they would like some advice about research integrityproblems they encounter.You should also ensure that the quality of counselingis important, so set standards about the qualityof counseling, including that advice given to researchersis timely and does not take up too long.That it is based on good knowledge of institutional,

  • 16:18

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: national, or international codes and policieson research integrity, and that they are sufficientlyfollow ups, since one meeting will likely notresolve a researcher's concern on a problem.There should be informal volunteer counselors available.We call them research integrity stewards.And they should be available for low day-to-day concerns.

  • 16:40

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: And it's important to set in clear rolesand responsibilities for this specific staffbecause you need to know what your roles are.And you're counseling, and you're advising,and you're not necessarily involvedin dealing with breaches of research integrity.It's also important that the counselors are visibleand that the advice is needed.For instance, institutions should clearly

  • 17:01

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: put up the contact details of counselors and researchintegrity stewards on their websites,or on the department's websites.Also, aligning counseling training and policy.It will be helpful for counselorsthat RI trainers and policymakers to come togetheron a regular basis to discuss how to learn from each other.

  • 17:21

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: And finally, institutional commitmentto research integrity counseling is needed because otherwise, itis very hard to implement.So leaders-- academic leaders within an institution--should not advertise, but should at leastmake sure that research integritycounselors are available.[What are the next steps in implementing the guidelines?]

  • 17:46

    KRISHMA LABIB: These guidelines representcomprehensive guidance to research institutionson research integrity education and counseling.Our participants in the workshopsmentioned that these guidelines are alreadyquite well developed.However, further refinements are needed in the guidelines,specifically with regard to formatting, making

  • 18:08

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: phrasings very precise, but also providing an implementationguide to help with the implementationof the guidelines.Considering that there are differences in institutionsacross Europe and globally in terms of the current attentionand emphasis on research integrity and researchintegrity education, it will be the case, likely,

  • 18:32

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: that not all institutions will beable to implement all the items in our guidelinesat the same time, and instead, gradual implementationwill be needed over time.But implementation is not impossible,and our guidelines can help institutionsto see how they can build up a coherent, comprehensive

  • 18:53

    KRISHMA LABIB [continued]: research integrity education policyand make research integrity training more common groundat their institution, which will helpto put research integrity in the limelight and foster researchintegrity.[Conclusion]

  • 19:14

    JOERI TIJDINK: Thank you for listening,and I would like to end with some concluding remarksbecause in this video, we have presentedan overview of institutional guidelineson research integrity education and counselingarising from our results for our co-creation workshop.And you may have seen, there's a lotof things that you take into accountand that you can do to improve guidance of research integrity

  • 19:37

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: training.It makes it easier to implement.Finalized, I think this can be truly helpful for institutionsand for policymakers to make research integrityeducation and counseling more available in the institutions.Although this is a first step, I thinkit gives a lot of practical and tangible help

  • 19:60

    JOERI TIJDINK [continued]: for administrators to make research integrityeducation successful.

Abstract

Joeri Tijdink, PhD, Assistant Professor, and Krishma Labib, PhD Student, at the Amsterdam University Medical Center, discuss developing SOPs4RI research integrity training, education, and counselling guidelines, including implementation, supporting, and next steps.

People

Academic:
Joeri Tijdink
Academic:
Krishma Labib

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    References
    References

    Further Reading

    (2017).The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity. ALLEA, https://allea.org/code-of-conduct/

    Further Reading

    Labib, K., Pizzolato, D., Taraj, B., & Et al., (2020).SOPs4RI Co-creation workshops. Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/8upmb/

    Further Reading

    Standard Operating Procedures for Research Integrity. SOPs4RI, https://sops4ri.eu/

Methods Map

Research ethics

The field of moral philosophy dealing with the standards by which behaviour should be regulated within research.
Research ethics
Developing Research Integrity Training and Counselling Guidelines

Joeri Tijdink, PhD, Assistant Professor, and Krishma Labib, PhD Student, at the Amsterdam University Medical Center, discuss developing SOPs4RI research integrity training, education, and counselling guidelines, including implementation, supporting, and next steps.

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