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  • 00:06


  • 00:11

    JULIANNE VIOLA: Hello, my name is Julianne Viola.And I am a PhD candidate at the University of Oxford.And I also served as a researcherat the Harvard Graduate School of Educationand the University of California Santa Barbara.We collaborated with Panorama Education, an education dataanalytics startup, to create a new survey scale to measureteacher, student relationships.

  • 00:33

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: [THE CREATION OF A NEW SURVEY SCALE]We employed a rigorous sis-step process to design this scale.This process was designed by Hunter Gehlbach and MaureenBrinkworth at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.I'll briefly touch on the six-step process,but then I'll focus on one of those steps.

  • 00:55

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: The first step is a literature review.The literature review will help you define your survey scalebased on what the previous literature hassaid about the topic.For example, our topic was teacher, student relationships.So we investigated what the previous literature hadto say to define this scale.The second step is interviews or focus groups.

  • 01:18

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: This step is really important because thisallows for feedback from a target group of respondentsthat will take your survey.In our case, we're interested in the perspectivesof students at primary and secondary schoolsin the United States.So we sought to recruit participantswho were primary and secondary students in the United States.

  • 01:39

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: The third step is synthesizing a list of indicators.Indicators are observable components of a scale.So for our scale, teacher, student relationships,one observable component is a teachers attitudesof caring and emotional support toward a student.The fourth step is developing a list of items.

  • 02:01

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: To do this, use best practices, including feedbackfrom your target respondents.This way you can synthesize what you'velearned from the literature, as well as the feedback you'vebeen receiving from the student participantsor participants who are target respondents For your scale.The fifth step is the expert review.

  • 02:22

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: This way you can get feedback from experts in the field.For example, a field of teacher, student relationships.The feedback from the experts can come in many forms.Our research team elected to use an online survey toolto ask experts about their opinionsregarding how appropriate each particular item of this scale

  • 02:43

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: was and how it could be improved or eliminated altogether.And finally, we have cognitive pre-testing interviews.This is the final step, because it allows the targetrespondents to interpret what youhave decided to be your items.It's important to ask the participants to first repeat

  • 03:04

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: the question out loud in their own words,and second to have them think aloudwhile they come up with their answer.This allows you to better understandhow your target respondents are interpreting each item so youcan see if they're interpreting it in the waythat you intended.[INTERVIEW AND FOCUS GROUPS]

  • 03:26

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: Now, I'll focus on the interview and focusgroup step of this process.The first top tip I have for you isto begin recruiting your participants early.You never know how long it's goingto take to get people to be on board with your project.So as soon as you know the population of peoplethat you're interested in interviewing,

  • 03:47

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: start reaching out to them.You never know how long it's goingto take because you might have to copewith certain institutional review board protocols thatmight delay the process.Our research team was based in Boston.We had preexisting research relationships with some schoolsthere.So we started there to recruit studentsto participate in the interviews.

  • 04:09

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: We also aimed to recruit participantswho may have difficulty taking the survey, such as studentswith difficult reading levels, as well as studentsfor whom English is not their native language.By doing this, we ensured that our wordingfor each item and each question in the surveywas available and accessible to studentsof all learning abilities and language abilities.

  • 04:31

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: My second top tip for you is to draw upa timeline for participant recruitment.Think about the timeline and then double it,because then you'll have extra time to recruit participants.You never know how many participantswill respond to your inquiry and invitationfor them to participate in an interview.So this allows for the select few

  • 04:53

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: who do respond to perhaps cancel out last minuteor maybe not show up at all.By extending your timeline, you'reenabling participants to have this flexibility,as well as you will ensure that youhave the target number of respondentsfor your interviews.My third top tip for you is to review your interview protocol

  • 05:14

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: with your research team.Your research team is an excellent and accessibleresource for you to develop your interview questions,as well as practice them before going out into the fieldto collect your interview data.My fourth top tip for you is to establish a rapportwith your participants.It's very important to create a comfortable environment

  • 05:35

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: in the interview setting, as wellas a rapport with the participantsso that they feel comfortable beinghonest with you in their responses to your questions.To help participants feel more at ease,you might want to disclose some personal informationabout yourself to make yourself a bit morerelatable to each participant.For example, if a participant seems hesitant,

  • 05:56

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: perhaps ask him or her about somethingthat they've expressed interest in earlier in the interview.Then you can redirect the conversationto the interview questions that you've already established.My fifth and final top tip for youto conduct a successful interviewis to be an active listener.To do this, you may wish to audio or video record

  • 06:18

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: the interview with the permission of the participant.This will allow you to take just short key wordsor phrases from the interview during the interview itself.And once the interview has finished,you can listen to or watch the interview recordingand take more detailed notes.[CONCLUSION]

  • 06:42

    JULIANNE VIOLA [continued]: Interviews can be very helpful and informative wayto get feedback from potential respondents for your survey.They can also be used in a variety of other researchsettings.

Video Info

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Ltd.

Publication Year: 2018

Video Type:Case Study

Methods: Survey research, Qualitative interviewing

Keywords: administration; feedback seeking; researcher-subject relations

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

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Julianne Viola explains the steps involved in the creation of a survey. Viola also offers advice on conducting research through surveys and interviews.

Video Info

Publication Info

SAGE Publications, Ltd.
Publication Year:
SAGE Research Methods Video: Practical Research and Academic Skills
Publication Place:
United Kingdom
SAGE Original Production Type:
SAGE Case Studies
Copyright Statement:
© SAGE Publications Ltd, 2018


Julianne Viola

Segment Info


Segment Num: 1


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Segment End Time:


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Methods Map

Survey research

Although the term can have several slightly different meanings, it generally refers to a research method that involves asking a sample of people a set of pre-prepared questions on a single occasion in order to gather data about their opinions and behavior.
Survey research
Researching Teacher’s Interest in Student’s Personal Development Using Interviews

Julianne Viola explains the steps involved in the creation of a survey. Viola also offers advice on conducting research through surveys and interviews.

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