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  • 00:00


  • 00:18

    ZOE HAMMATT: Greetings.My name is Zoe Hammatt, and I serveas President of Z Consulting and Adjunct Associate Professorin the Department of Cell and Molecular Biologyat the Medical School in the University of Hawaii.I am a Lawyer by training and hold a Master's degreein law and ethics in medicine from the University

  • 00:41

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: of Glasgow in Scotland.And I am honored to serve on the advisory boardof the SOPs4RI project, which is funded by the EuropeanCommission.I wish to thank Niels Mejlgaard and the membersof the Consortium for inviting meto join this video production, and also the fantastic

  • 01:02

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: team at SAGE for really skilled coordinationof this production.I first became exposed to the topic of medical ethicsduring my graduate studies at the University of Glasgow,and was later invited to serve as an ethics fellow at the St.Francis International Center for Health Care Ethics in Hawaii,

  • 01:25

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: and served on the hospital ethics committee.At the University of Hawaii and as a memberof the faculty of the medical school,I was invited to serve on the Institutional Review Boardand charged with reviewing and overseeing human subjectsresearch, as well as teaching law and ethics in medicine

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    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: to medical students and researchersand those particularly interested in incorporatingthe regulatory and compliance aspects of research ethicsand law into their work, as part of their responsibilityto conduct research with integrity.

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    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: So I had the honor also of serving as the Legaland Regulatory Specialist for a large multi-site consortiumfunded by the National Institutes of Health,and also dedicated to reducing and eliminatinghealth disparities.And then as far as research integrity,I was invited to serve on investigative panels,

  • 02:29

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: and then as a Chair of a panel, and thenwas asked to be the Research Integrity Officerand Director of the Research Integrity Programat the University of Hawaii.And finally, served as Director of the Division of Educationand Integrity at the US Federal Oversight Agency,

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    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: which is called the Office of Research Integrityin Rockville, Maryland.So this topic is going to revolvearound the fundamental principlesthat underlie research ethics and integrity,discuss some commonalities and thensome variation in the structures that

  • 03:11

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: are used to ensure that research is conducted ethicallyas well as with integrity.So first of all, just to acknowledgethat the values of trust and honesty and respectare fundamental to this entire conversationand really underlie both concepts.

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    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: But the focus and emphasis of each of these two topicsis actually distinct, and we will discuss that.So first, what is research integrity?I really like the definition from the University

  • 03:56

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: of Edinburgh, where I had the honor of studyinghistory of art many years ago.Research integrity means conducting researchin a way that allows others to haveconfidence and trust in the methodsand findings of the research.It relates both to the scientific integrity

  • 04:17

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: of conducted research and to the professional integrityof the researchers, which is really keybecause there is also a social responsibilityon the part of researchers.This definition from the University of Edinburghreally emphasizes the conduct of research.Other definitions go more broadly.

  • 04:38

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: For example, the United States definitiontalks about integrity in promoting, performing,reviewing, and reporting research.So even, for example, in submitting a grant applicationor a progress report, there can be instances of misconduct,and one is obliged to behave with integrity, not only

  • 04:59

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: in the conduct of research.So countries take very different approachesaround the world to the various regulatory structuresaround research integrity, which we'll touch upon.

  • 05:20

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: And also, just to acknowledge that thereis some vast variation around research ethicsand the definition of research ethics but,fundamentally, the research ethics field,like the research integrity field,has evolved more as a politically driven field as

  • 05:42

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: opposed to one that is centered around hypotheses and researchdriven questions because of the factthat there were very high profile instances of breachesof integrity or violations of ethics both in the conceptof large cases of misconduct that were high profile

  • 06:03

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: and at very prestigious institutions,beginning in the US as far as research integrity,and also for human subjects as earlyas the Nazi experiments that occurred during the SecondWorld War.After which time, during the Nuremberg trials,there was the evolution of principles that gave rise

  • 06:24

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: to the Declaration of Helsinki, the Belmont Report,and other international and national codes and guidelinesthat actually encourage us to thinkabout the ethical risks that may occur whena participant, human participant,is subjecting themselves to a clinical trial

  • 06:46

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: or other forms of research, which, as I mentioned,have varying definitions around the world.So acknowledging that these topics havefundamental underlying values, there is also

  • 07:06

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: a distinction between them.And there are some definitions available.It's kind of fun to Google, if that's a verb,and try to understand what the definition is of eachbut also what the distinction is between the two.And there are several entities thathave sought to define the distinction.

  • 07:29

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: The World Conferences on Research Integrity Foundationwebsite has one distinction and a nice kindof summary of both concepts.And I, for the purposes of this conversation,would just like to note that the integrity reallyfocuses on the research and the researcher itself,as I mentioned with the lovely University of Edinburgh

  • 07:52

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: definition, while research ethics tends, historically,to focus on the protection of human participants and datain research around humans.There are also many other fields we could discuss,including animal ethics, biosafety,

  • 08:13

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: and all kinds of forms of researchthat may involve ethical implicationsand acknowledging that research integrity and ethicsboth occur within a historical, cultural, and politicalcontext.So there may be very different emphasesbased upon the time frame.

  • 08:33

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: It's very easy for us to look back into the past and say,can you believe they did that with human participants,for example, or, can you believe this individual fabricateddata in this particular way, whenthere may be evolving forms of ethical review

  • 08:54

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: as well as our ability to manipulate the system in waysthat evolve as technology evolves?So there is very often an intersectionbetween these two topics.

  • 09:16

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: For example, there may be instancesof misconduct or breaches of integrityin the context of clinical research,where, for example, there may be a separate ethicscommittee that reviews various human studies--

  • 09:37

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: protocols and also conducts some kind of monitoring overthe term of that study.And there may be an instance of either fabricationor falsification or some other mistreatment of human subjects,which is also a form of misconduct,depending upon the definition and the policy to which we

  • 09:59

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: are adhering.And so there may be a need for coordination and communicationacross the regulatory structures andthe institutional structures thatare managing and overseeing either researchethics or research integrity.I believe it's also really important

  • 10:19

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: to note that, depending upon the level of evolution of eachof the systems, there is a lot of variationin different countries.So, for example, the research ethics regimehas been much more solidified.And there's quite a solid paradigm.And researchers and also regulators and compliance

  • 10:42

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: experts tend to understand the research ethics paradigm as faras understanding what kinds of discussionneeds to happen in order to obtain the informedconsent of someone who subjects themselves to human subjectsresearch.So it has been more solidified in the consciousness, if you

  • 11:04

    ZOE HAMMATT [continued]: will, of researchers conducting research as wellas the individuals who oversee such research in their roleas members of an institutional review board or ethicscommittee, as it sometimes called.Thank you for watching.And I hope you find this useful and perhaps even inspiring.

Video Info

Series Name: SOPs4RI

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Ltd.

Publication Year: 2022

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Research ethics, Integrity, Ethical principles, Researcher skills

Keywords: codes of conduct; Declaration of Helsinki; ethical codes; ethics in human subjects research; falsification; integrity; international research; misconduct; research ethics; research practice and methodology; Standard operating procedures ... Show More

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



Zoë Hammatt, Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Hawaii, and President of Z Consulting, discusses the underlying principles of research ethics and research integrity, including definitions of both, how they differ, and when they intersect.

Video Info

Publication Info

SAGE Publications, Ltd.
Publication Year:
SAGE Research Methods Video: Research Ethics and Integrity
Publication Place:
United Kingdom
SAGE Original Production Type:
SAGE Tutorials
Copyright Statement:
©SAGE Publications Ltd., 2022


Zoe Hammatt

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Segment Num: 1


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Segment End Time:


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Methods Map

Research ethics

The field of moral philosophy dealing with the standards by which behaviour should be regulated within research.
Research ethics
Research Integrity and Research Ethics: Similarities and Differences

Zoë Hammatt, Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Hawaii, and President of Z Consulting, discusses the underlying principles of research ethics and research integrity, including definitions of both, how they differ, and when they intersect.

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