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  • 00:11

    NATHAN DURDELLA: Hi I'm Nathan Durdella,an associate professor at Cal State, Northridge.Today, I'll talk about understanding or researchproposals, framing a research or proposalthrough an introduction, linking a research proposalto related literature, designing a qualitative research proposalmethodologically, and planning for the implementationof a qualitative research proposal.

  • 00:32

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: The goal of today's talk is to support the developmentof your own work in designing a qualitative research proposal.Let's start with understanding research proposals.A proposal is a plan for a systematic investigation.It maps to where you want to go in the study and plots

  • 00:55

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: where you are at as a researcher.It's what distinguishes systematic investigationsin social and behavioral science inquiryfrom other types of research.Research proposals very by research goal.Systematic and scholarly investigationsreport proposals that introduce a topic,contextualize a problem, and present a design for data

  • 01:16

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: collection and analysis.Applied research proposals and evaluation research proposalsdo all the same and connect what you'redoing to program outcomes and performance measures.And finally, funding research proposals do all of the sameand add a timeline in a budget.So no matter what your research goal all research fossils

  • 01:39

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: present three common elements and these three elementstend to be the sections that you use in your research proposal.And these are, the introduction, the background or literaturereview, and the approach or methodology.Let's take a closer look at what each of these sectionspresents in the research proposal.The introduction presents the rational, purpose,

  • 02:01

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: and questions of a study.The background situates a study in a body of researchfocusing a conceptual lens, synthesizing for literature,and describing a problem to investigate.The approach details the research design and methodsto collect and analyze data in a study.

  • 02:26

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: So with this understanding or research proposalsand these three sections of a research proposal,the introduction, the background, and the approachor methodology, you can then startto frame the introduction of the research proposaland move to first section, introduction.The introduction section is one of most important partsof research proposal.It hooks the reader encouraging them

  • 02:47

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: to continue reading and investing in your studyyou do this by establishing the importance of his study,the significance, the so what question, why should Icontinue reading and investing in your study?You can use your hook as a statisticthat you get from literature or you can use a compelling storythat you found in a study.

  • 03:09

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: So if you establish the importanceof a study in the introduction, youcan then move to the research purpose, whichis the focus of instruction.The research purpose presents two parts,what you will do in a study and what you hope to accomplish.What you will do want a study is the phenomenonthat you'll investigate and how you go about investigating it.And what you hope to accomplish in a study is

  • 03:29

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: the impact your research work will have on researchand practice is the contribution that you make as a researcher.Lets take a look at an example of a research purposestatement.The purpose of this study is to explore public schooladministrator experiences with closingachievement gaps in STEM.I hope to share research and formed high impact practices

  • 03:49

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: to support practitioners work with schools, students,and parents.So with this example, you can seehow research purpose statement is present in the example.You have what you will do in the first sentenceand what you hope to accomplish in the second sentence.It's very simple and direct and brief.In two sentences, you can identifywhat you would do as a researcher

  • 04:10

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: and what you hope to accomplish in your research study.Once you've done this, you've completed framing the studyand then you can move on to linking a studyto a related literature.So you framed a study in the introductionby establishing the importance and state of the research

  • 04:31

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: purpose you can now link your study to a related literature.The literature is your story it'swhat connects your study to the stories of other researchersin their studies and this is important for studyit grounds your entire investigation,so you have to talk about this in your proposedresearch in the proposal.And you do this by describing evaluating and synthesizing

  • 04:55

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: individual research studies.You describe a research study by looking at its contribution,what it did and what it found, and you restate it.You evaluate that same study against standardsin your field.And you can use the following questionsto guide your evaluation of an individual research study.Is the research purpose clearly articulated?

  • 05:18

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: Is the research problem tied directlyto a review of the literature?Are the research design and methods systematic?Are results presented thematicallyand supported by direct quotes?Do conclusions or recommendationsemerge from results.So you can use these questions to guideevaluating individual research studies to assess them

  • 05:38

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: against standards in the field.These questions are particularly well-suitedfor qualitative inquiry.Once you've described and evaluated a research study,you can then synthesize across all studies and areasof literature to come up with a statement about whatwe currently know and do from the literature.This is the important because it relatesto the following process in your background of your research

  • 06:00

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: proposal.This is the end product of the background sectionof the research proposal.It's the research problem.The research problem has two functions.It states current gaps in knowledge and practiceand how your study will address those gaps.So with your research problem thatstates current gaps in knowledge and practiceand how your study will address those gaps,

  • 06:21

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: you can use the following two templatesto start designing your own research problem statement.The research problem in my study addresses what we currentlydo not know about by exploring, examining, investigating.Or, the problem that this study addressesis by exploring, examining, investigating.

  • 06:42

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: So you can see from these two templatesyou have a way to start your research problem statement.And you can see in these two templatesboth parts of a research problem the current gaps in knowledgeand practice and how your study will address those gapsin knowledge and practice.

  • 07:03

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: So by now, you've framed your research or hostby establishing importance and identifying a research purpose.You've also linked your proposal to a related literature,ending in a research problem.It's now time to move on to designinga qualitative research proposal methodologically.And this section has two parts, your research design

  • 07:24

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: and your research methods.The research design presents the overall strategythat you will use in your study to collect and analyze data.Your research methods presents the ways in which youwill analyze and collect data.An area related to research methods are proceduresand these are the detailed step by step ways

  • 07:44

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: that you will analyze and collect data in the field.Let's take a closer look at research design, the first partof two parts of the methodology section of your researchproposal.With research design, you first haveto ensure that what you're doing alignswith the goals of qualitative research of discovery,description, and verification.Once you've done that, you can then

  • 08:05

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: move to a qualitative research visionand align it with what you want to do in your study.Let's take a look at the five major qualitative researchtraditions ethnography, grounded theory, phenomenology,narrative inquiry, and case study.With ethnography, the focus is on cultural experiences.

  • 08:25

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: The goal is to learn about how a group feelsit behaves and produces things.The methods are participant observations,ethnographic interviews, documents, and artifacts.With grounded theory, the focus is on experiences, events,and processes.The goal is to develop a model to explainthe relationships between factors that shape outcomes.

  • 08:45

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: The methods are personal group interviews, observations,and documents.With phenomenology, the focus is on lived experiences.The goal is to explore the structure of an interaction,event, or experience.And the methods are in-depth, sequenced interviewswith a small group of participants.With narrative inquiry, the focus is on stories.

  • 09:07

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: The goal is to understand the structure and meaningof stories and broader patterns associated with those stories.The methods are persistent observations,ethnographic interviews, some structured interviews,and documents.And finally, with case study, the focusis on bounded system or unit.

  • 09:27

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: The goal is to describe the uniqueness of a unit or largertrends in the unit.The methods are personal group interviews, observations,and documents.With your research design you've aligned your studywith a qualitative research tradition.The next step is to move to research methods,the second part of this method all the section

  • 09:47

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: of your research proposal.In this part, you have four main components.You have your research setting, whichis where you conduct your study, your sites or settings.You have your research sample and data sources,which is the ways you will recruit and sampleparticipants in your study.You have your data collection methods, which are the waysthat you gather information in the field,

  • 10:09

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: these are interviews and observations.You also have to have the tools to gather information,this is part of that component.And finally, you have data analysis methods,which described the ways that you will code,segment, and thematize data after data collection.So with these four sections of the research methods,

  • 10:29

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: let's take a look at for examples to guide your work.For a research setting, I will use XYZ.School District as a research site in my study.Established in 1965, XYZ School District currently rolls over.For data sources and sample I will use interviewswith school administrators as data sources.

  • 10:51

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: I plan to use a chain sampling strategyto recruit participants.For data collection methods, I willuse in-depth personal interviews,meeting at school or district sites with administrators.I plan to send email invitations.For data analysis methods, i will analyze data duringand data collection.

  • 11:11

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: In the field, I'm going to memo, jottingboth descriptive and reflective notes.At this point you've framed a research proposalthrough introduction, you've linked itto a related literature, and you'vedesigned it methodologically using quality

  • 11:31

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: of research done in methods.It's now time to plan the implementationof a qualitative research proposal.This is important to do, particularlyin qualitative inquiry where conditionsmay change in the field that require you to updateyour plan and your proposal.OK, so you can use the following four guidelinesto consider how you will respond to conditions thatchange in the field and anticipate what

  • 11:53

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: may come next after designing your researchproposal qualitatively.These four guidelines are, building relationshipsin the field, ethical decisions about story ownership,protecting human research participants,and exiting the field.OK so let's first consider building relationshipsin the field the strength of your relationships in the fieldwith informants, sponsors, gatekeepers, and participants

  • 12:18

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: generally determines the quality of the datathat you can access and collect.So find common ground with participants and informantsand look for ways to meet their needsand address their work in the field.The next consideration is making ethical decisionsabout story ownership.This relates to who owns the story youor your informants and participants, your gatekeepers,

  • 12:40

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: and your sponsors.Look for ways to co-construct that storyso that when you disseminate it, you're confidentthat what you share comes from not only you,but also who you interviewed in the fieldand observed as part of your research study.The next consideration is protecting human researchparticipants.This is incredibly important.

  • 13:01

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: Follow the research governance on your campusand ensure that you have an approved IRBprotocol so you can follow federal regulations to ensurethat participants voluntarily participate in the studyand that you protect their confidentialitythroughout the research process.The final consideration is exiting the field.This relates to how you will leave the site in participants.

  • 13:23

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: What will your relationships look like with themas you move from the field to the office,from data collection to data analysis.So look for ways to disseminate data with your participantsand ensure that they benefit from your research work.

  • 13:43

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: So you've framed a research proposalthrough an introduction, you've linked itto a really literature and you've designed itmethodologically using qualitative researchand methods, and you've also planfor implementation of a qualitative research proposal.You're now ready to do your own research with polls or workqualitatively.You can use the following four questionsto guide the design and development

  • 14:05

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: of your own qualitative research proposal.For working with a research proposal to plan a study,what type of research proposal will I develop?For framing the qualitative approach in research proposals,how will I introduce and contextualize a problemthat I will investigate in my proposal?For constructing a qualitative research design and methods

  • 14:26

    NATHAN DURDELLA [continued]: in proposals, how will I go about gathering and makingsense of information?And for planning field work in a qualitative researchproposal, which strategies will support my work in the field?

Video Info

Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd

Publication Year: 2018

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Research proposals, Planning research, Qualitative data collection

Keywords: administration; developing relationships; maintaining relationships; proposal writing; technical writing; writing (composition); writing aids ... Show More

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

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Nathan Durdella explains the process and components involved in writing a research proposal. Durdella also examines different qualitative traditions and how to integrate them into the proposal.

Video Info

Publication Info

SAGE Publications Ltd
Publication Year:
SAGE Research Methods Video: Practical Research and Academic Skills
Publication Place:
London, United Kingdom
SAGE Original Production Type:
SAGE Tutorials
Copyright Statement:
© SAGE Publications Ltd, 2018


Nathan Durdella

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Segment Num: 1


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Methods Map

Research proposals

A detailed description of the nature of the proposed research, its significance and how it will be conducted.
Research proposals
Key Skills in Writing a Qualitative Research Proposal

Nathan Durdella explains the process and components involved in writing a research proposal. Durdella also examines different qualitative traditions and how to integrate them into the proposal.

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