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  • 00:00


  • 00:18

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL: So I'm Ruby Appiah-Campbell,a doctoral researcher with Loughborough University.I'm in my second year of my PhD at the moment.[How did you become interested in your MRes research topic?]

  • 00:39

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: I used to be a banker for nine years.And I got interested in research when I did my MBA.We did a little of research, and it was quite interesting.So afterwards, I decided that I wanted to go into research

  • 01:00

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: and understand it better.So I decided to apply for Master's in researchinstead of doing a PhD.I wanted to get the foundations of how to design research,how to do research properly before I do my PhD, whichhas made my life much easier now because all I did

  • 01:22

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: was research, business research.So when I started my research, I knewwhat I wanted to study about even though the course wasactually for--it wasn't specific as in it wasn'tlike marketing or business finance or accountingor anything.It was just general business research.

  • 01:45

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: We were doing stuff like philosophies,quantitative research, qualitative research,and in general, how to design research.I chose my topic myself.I wanted to understand relationship marketingand banking because I had done it before,

  • 02:06

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: so I wanted to see whether the literature isthe same as the practice-- what people are seeingin the literature, as in academia, what theyare seeing in the literature.Is it the same as what is actually being practiced?So I decide to do my research in relationship marketingand banking.[How did you decide your research question]

  • 02:34

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: Before I started, I didn't know anythingabout research I didn't know what to do.But because we were taking a course, like book course,an exam, like proper classroom course on a research design,we were taught on theories, how to create your own theories,

  • 02:56

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: how to adapt theories into your work and stuff like that.So then I had to formulate my theory to suithow were we supposed to do it.So it's not like I am interested in this.So you just write it, but you have to bring itinto the academic context.So then I learned how to do that by adapting

  • 03:21

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: what I was interested in.That is the literal way I wanted to do itinto the academic context.So that's how I formulated my research questions.And my research questions were mainlyto understand relationship marketingin the banking industry.

  • 03:43

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: [How did you plan your research?]The first step I did was to read the literature because Ihad a very good knowledge of the protocol bit,so I needed to be able to read the literature without thinking

  • 04:04

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: about the practice because when I startedreading the literature, it's like Iknew what I was going to look for,which was not really helpful.So I needed to read the literature without thinkingabout the practice.And I got to understand a lot of thingsand like in the literature, which made

  • 04:25

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: me reflect on what I was doing.So then I could understand better whyI was doing what I was doing.So I did my literature review, and Irealized where the gap was.I was trying to find the gap whilst Iwas doing a literature review.

  • 04:48

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: I realized there was a lot of work that has beendone on relationship marketing.So really, the gap was not that easy to get because itwas more of contextual gap.It wasn't what I would say is a gap now--now I have moved on--I realized it wasn't really a gap like that.

  • 05:10

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: It was more of a contextual gap and not a theoretical gap.So that's how I did my literature review.Then for my literature review, I decidedthat I was going to collect data from Ghana because I thoughtit was easier for me to get that databecause I had decided I was going to collect data

  • 05:33

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: from practitioners.And it is not that easy to get practitioners to collect datain the financial institutions because youneed to go through a lot of processbecause they need to actually protect.It's a policy to protect the data of consumers.So for you to be able to get their approval

  • 05:55

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: to get those people as participants is very difficultand because I had already worked in the industry in Ghana,I decided to collect the data from Ghana,which would be much easier for me and the customers as well.So I decided to do a mixed method.And concurrently, I said I wanted

  • 06:17

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: to understand what the practitioner, asin the relationship manager, what he feels about his workand what the customer also feels.Is it the same?Do they feel the same way?What is the relationship manager is offering as a service,

  • 06:39

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: do the customer really appreciate that?Because when I read the literature,I realized that what is termed as qualityservice in the Western world or in the developed countryis so different from what we termed

  • 06:59

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: as quality service or exceptional service--exceptional service in the emerging countrydependent on the culture.I realized that the culture also hasan influence on the expectation of what quality services isbecause in the emerging country, customers would expect

  • 07:21

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: you to work to provide service to them even after workinghours.That is when they call it exceptional.But in the developed country, when it's 5:00and the bank is closed, it is actually closed,so you don't have to carry work from the office to the house.But in the emerging countries, you have to do extra

  • 07:44

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: after working hours for the customerto feel like you're doing more than is expected,which they term it as quality service, and they term itas satisfactory.So when you do the 9:00 to 5:00 with them,it's you've not really--

  • 08:06

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: [How did you collect data what challenges were there?]So I decided to collect two data so the relationship managers,I did interviews.In an hour, I collected 10 interviews an hour

  • 08:32

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: per interview.And with the customers, I targeted 150 customersbecause I had a shorter time to do it, so I decided to do 150.I used Google.I used Google to create a link to send it to them because most

  • 08:58

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: of them were not--I actually went to Ghana and collected data myself,but most of them were not really ready to do like the faceto face and fill in the form.So I had to send it to them through a link on WhatsApp.Even if they agree to complete it,they want a link to send it to their emails or their WhatsAppto do it at the convenient time.

  • 09:20

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: So I did that.And for the interview, I went to the offices,and I requested for an interview time.They gave me that time that would be convenient for them,and I had the interview.I recorded them.They agreed for me to record it, and we had alreadytold them in my consent letter before going for the interview.

  • 09:43

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: So they were ready for me to record the interviewand for the Google link that I did.And so I was able to get easy update asin when anybody completes it, you'reable to see that it's done.I don't know if I would do that again

  • 10:06

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: because I feel like you then sent it to anybody,and everybody can also send it to another person.You can't really tell the number of peopleyou targeted, even though I had target 150, that'spossible my link went to more than 150 people.So really, I got like 102 response,

  • 10:32

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: but I cannot confidently say that my response was out of 150because I didn't restrict my link,which I will probably do the next time if I'm doing a surveyand would probably use Qualtrics instead of Google because then

  • 10:53

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: I'm able to adjust it and make sure that I know I'm sendingto 150.So I can justify why I got like maybe 150,and I can see that I got a lot of peopleto answer the questionnaire instead of just sending itlike that.

  • 11:13

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: [what considerations were there for ethics and consent?]Before all of this, I had to complete the ethics formfor my university and send it to the ethics committee

  • 11:34

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: to get approval before I go ahead.I would say my participants were not very sensitive people,but the data was collected was quite sensitive because there'sa policy not to get information from customers,so I had to go through the ethics committeeto get approval to go ahead and collect the data.

  • 11:57

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: And in terms of ethics, I wanted to be as neutral as possiblewhile I was collecting the data.So I indicated all that on my consent letterto my participants.On my consent letter, I had indicated that theycould opt out if they want to.

  • 12:19

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: I told them what the agenda was, whatthat research was all about, and what I was going to use it for.I made them aware of the confidentiality of it.It was only going to be used for my research,and it would be with the university.So I made them comfortable by giving them the letter.

  • 12:39

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: And I asked them to sign-off before I take the interviewso that we are on the same page before.and I also told them I was going to record it.So all these were stated in my consent letter to them.[How did you analyse your data?]

  • 13:08

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: I transcribed my in data myself, and thenI could have used NVivo actually,but I didn't at the time because I didn't know much about NVivoat the time.I do now.And so I transcribed it, and then I

  • 13:29

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: used SPSS for the survey, for analyzing the survey.So I coded all of my survey.I printed them out, even though it was a soft copy,I still printed them out because I wantedto be sure of what I was doing.And it was my first time actually using SPSS.So I pointed them out.

  • 13:51

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: And then I used SPSS to do the analysis.I used equational models to do it.I used the trust theory, and I wantedto find out whether the customers actuallyhave that trust for the relationship managers

  • 14:11

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: because what is termed as trust is very, very relative.And people would take a longer time to trust.Everybody has a way of trusting people,and then even the time frame and the kind of relationshipwill determine how the person would trust you.

  • 14:33

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: The relationship manager would thinkthat the customer trusts him or her, but the customer does not.So I wanted to confirm really what's the relationshipmanager thinks.Trust is the same as what the customer thinks.With banking, the trust is the most important thingin banking, and the customer needs

  • 14:54

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: to trust you to be able to tell you everything financiallyabout his income or his money and whathe wants to do with his money stuff and like that.I actually looked at high-end customers.Yes the high-end customers because they take a longer timeto trust the banks because they don'twant other people to know much about their finances and stuff

  • 15:17

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: like that.So that's why I try to confirm or to find outhow they both understand trust.[How did you present your findings?]

  • 15:40

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: When I was doing my literature review,I started writing my chapter 2, doing my literature review,which I revised after my work, after collecting the data.I wrote, in my model as well.I had a model in mind.

  • 16:02

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: I had and developed a model before collectingthe data, which because it was justOK after collecting the data.So after transcribing, I did my methodology,After my literature review, I did my methodology.Then I collected the data.When I collected the data, I transcribed it myself.

  • 16:25

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: Then I did it manually by checking the themesand coding them.And then I did the SPSS bits as well, which is the survey bit.Then I put them together to find out whether it's correspond,and I realized that most of the themes that Ifound in my interviews were almost the same as the surveys.

  • 16:55

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: So it confirmed each other like.They were almost the same.Even though I did them concurrently,I didn't do it sequentially, but their findings were the same.[What did you learn from doing this research?]

  • 17:22

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: In terms of data collection, I think I would notlook at just the convenient.I feel like my first project I waslooking at the convenience of just getting the data easilyand finishing with it.

  • 17:44

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: But this time around, I would lookat the data that would actually suit my projectto show that my projects would be more impactful than justlooking at the convenience of getting the data.Yes, that's the main thing that Iwill look at in terms of my data collection.

  • 18:06

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: And in terms of my analysis, I would alsolike to use more robust systems and toolsto make my work more efficient than strugglingto do it manually, which could take a longer time.And I also want to immerse myself more into my data

  • 18:29

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: to kind of like understand the data better,and I think that understanding the data bettercould also bring me more ideas on what to do in the futurethan just finishing the PhD.I think with the first project, it'slike I knew what I'm looking for,

  • 18:50

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: and I was pressed with time.I think that this next project, eventhough I have a limited time, I alsowant to do a better job, which I could use later on as well.So in terms of the data collection and analysis,I would want to immerse myself into the data to understand

  • 19:11

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: the data properly.[What recommendations would you have for anyone looking to dosimilar research?]I think it is always good to take the challenge of doingsomething new.

  • 19:35

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: I still wanted to do relationship marketing, servicemarketing when I was going to do my PhDand my supervisor advised me on a new area I could look at.And I felt like, oh, I don't know anything about this,but I feel like when you feel this is your area,

  • 19:60

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: it actually limits you.You should be open to other concepts and other views.And doing this PhD, even though I've not gone far with it,I feel like it was good.I chose to do this, even though Ididn't have any idea about it, but now, I'm

  • 20:20

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: very, very interested in what I'mdoing than what I wanted to do because then I'mopen to other ideas.I'm open to learn other new thingsthan just restrict myself to my interest in what I'minterested in, and that's it.So even coming for this conference,most of the workshops I've attended

  • 20:41

    RUBY APPIAH-CAMPBELL [continued]: are things that I'm not really in my areabecause I want to know about what other people are doingand not just my interest.[MUSIC PLAYING]nbsp;


Ruby Appiah-Campbell, Doctoral Researcher at Loughborough University, discusses mixed-method research on customer relationships & quality service in the Ghanaian banking sector.

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Researching Customer Relationships & Quality Service in the Ghanaian Banking Sector Using Mixed Methods

Ruby Appiah-Campbell, Doctoral Researcher at Loughborough University, discusses mixed-method research on customer relationships & quality service in the Ghanaian banking sector.

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