SPEAKER: This is the second movie on introductions,looking at language.And maybe print out the text versionso you can add notes as you listen.This movie is only on the organizing statement, sometimescalled thesis statement.This, remember, is the second part of your introduction,and it's basically a list of the sections of your essay,
SPEAKER [continued]: so sets out your argument, your approach.It often uses certain types of language,so let's look at this in more detail.[Use future tenses]So to start, use future tenses, meaning will.When you say watch your essay is going to do, the main sections,and there are three variations.
SPEAKER [continued]: First, use will on its own, as in these examples.[I will make this judgement.] [Hence this report will examinethree sectors...] [To do this, this paper will lookat the following...] Note how you never use the short formin essays.Always write it out in full.Next, you could use a slightly more complicated form of will,so add b and then an -ing verb, and again
SPEAKER [continued]: look at some examples.[I will be making this judgement...] [Hence thisreport will be examining three sectors...] [To do this,this paper will be looking at the following...] There's notreally much difference between using this form and just willon its own.It just sounds slightly more formal.And last, you could reverse the sentenceand use a passive form.So use will, then be, and a past participle,
SPEAKER [continued]: like in these examples.[Hence, three sectors will be examined in this report...] [Todo this, the following will be looked at in this paper...]Like before, the passive version sounds a bit more formal.So three ways of using will, and they all mean the same thing.And one last thing on future tenseis, don't use going to here.
SPEAKER [continued]: It sounds too informal.So switch to will instead.When you get used to writing organizing statements,you can be more flexible-- change things around a bit--to avoid using will all the time, as you can see here.Just make sure it's clear what the main sections of your essay
SPEAKER [continued]: are.Next, use listing language, because thiscan help set out the order of the sections of your essay--what comes first, second, et cetera.So you could use simple listing words, like in these examples--[This essay will make this judgement,looking first/ly at France, then at Germany and finallyat Portugal.] [First/ly, I will analyse the causes.Next I will suggest possible solutions, and last/ly,I will detail recent developments.] Words like
SPEAKER [continued]: firstly, secondly, then, next, finally, lastly, and so on.And by the way, don't use at first or at last here.As these actually mean something different.Next, you could use -ing verbs, and check out the complexity
SPEAKER [continued]: unit for more help with these.All you do is make a full sentence somewhere thenhang these off it.So let's look at some examples.[My essay will make this judgement,first looking at Italy, then at France.] [This will be doneas follows; by first defining the key terms,next by examining different sectors.] [After definingterms, this essay will continue by examining four sectors.] Thesentence, the -ing verbs, and also some listing words--
SPEAKER [continued]: words like after and before are very common with these -ingverbs as an alternative to always usingfull sentences, which can sound a bit repetitive.[This essay will define terms.Then it will continue by examining four sectors.]Next, you could use certain phrases,but be careful with the grammar--they go after the main sentence and are followed by nouns.
SPEAKER [continued]: So let's look at some examples.Here is the main sentence--[This essay will look at three sectors,namely/those of retail, the service industryand manufacturing.]-- and here the phrase,namely or those of, then a string of nouns.So don't follow them with a sentence like this--[are useful here. X] The meaning of namely and those of is
SPEAKER [continued]: to say what you are looking at--so all the examples of your topic.[This essay will look at various sectors, for example,retail and the service industry.] For example is verysimilar, but means some of the examples, not all of them,and sounds a bit vague for the organizing part.And by the way, those of is for plurals,
SPEAKER [continued]: so if you only have one example, use that of,or just stick with namely.In terms of all with reference to is used in the same way.[This essay will look at three sectors in terms of/withreference to their impact on individuals,and then in terms of/with reference to their impacton governments.] First sentence, then the phrase,and then the nouns.
SPEAKER [continued]: But the meaning is different--namely or those of emphasizes what you are looking at--the following things.In terms of or with reference to emphasizeshow you are looking at it, so the subject,your point of view on it.
SPEAKER [continued]: And one final phrase, used from and throughto summarize a range of topics.[This essay will look at some of the debate,] [from the originaltheory of currency union, through to recent criticismsof lending policies.] So across time, like here,or across countries, or across opinions.Next, try and use a range of verbs
SPEAKER [continued]: to introduce your sections.[My paper will first define these terms...] [Four issueswill be examined...] [It is helpful to lookat the historical background...] [After detailing the causes...]Some examples might be define, examine, look at, et cetera.Avoid ones like say, talk about, or write about,as they can sound a bit informal.
SPEAKER [continued]: And last, be parallel.Very important and easy to get wrong.What does this mean?Well, your organizing statement is really a list,and each part of that list needs to be grammatically the same.So all nouns or all sentences, or all -ing verbs, et cetera.
SPEAKER [continued]: If you mix the grammar up, then you are not being parallel.[This essay will attempt to andwer this question by firstgiving some background and then it will detail a case study.]This sentence is not parallel, because this is an -ing verb,but this is a sentence.So change it to to this, with two I angry verbs--[This essay will attempt to answer this question by firstgiving some background and then detailing a case study.]or to this, with two sentences.
SPEAKER [continued]: [This essay will attempt to answer this question;it willfirst give some background and will then detail a case study.][First I will give some background,then a case study will be detailed.X] This sentence is also not parallel,because this is a regular verb with I,but this is a reversed one, a passive.So change it to this--[First I will give some background,then I will detail a case study.]--with two regular verbs with I, or to this--
SPEAKER [continued]: [First some background will be given,then a case study will be detailed.]-- with two passives.So that's it for the organizing statement language,and improve yours by trying all the exercises.
Eveline Powell explains how to create an effective thesis statement.
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Eveline Powell explains how to create an effective thesis statement.