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  • 00:10

    ANDY FIELD: When I came to the ideaof doing these little presentations to showvarious things in SPSS, I thought, well,they're going to be much more interesting than readingthe book.And it'd be a nice little thing that peoplecould go and watch and keep themselves entertainedon those lonely, cold nights.But I've just been kind of looking over

  • 00:30

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: some of (LAUGHING) the ones I've already done,and they're all terrible!Really, really, really unbelievably boring.However, this one-- this one is going to be fantastic.And the reason for that is because it's all about graphs.

  • 00:51

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And graphs are the most exciting thing in the universe.Really.So sit down with a nice, big syringe of heroin,and off we go into the exciting world of graphs.Now in the book chapter I spend quite a lot

  • 01:12

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: of time telling you how to draw different types of graphs.And that's all well and good, but oneof the things that it did mean is that I didn't reallyhave a lot of space to talk about how you can edit graphsin SPSS.And editing graphs can be quite a useful thing to do,because the graphs that pop out of SPSSdon't always look how you want them to look.

  • 01:36

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Now one of the kind of quite tragic things about-- [LAUGH]being me is that you can get really quiteexcited [INAUDIBLE].Perhaps that's the wrong word.But in a way excited about a good graph.A good graph says a million words.And, you know, it's like looking at, I don't know,

  • 01:58

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: a nice Picasso or something.It's just-- they're things of great beauty.But when they're pink, they can be things of hideous ugliness.So edit your graphs to present your data well.In the chapter I've gone for bloody pagesabout this, about how graphs should lookand how they should do this and they shouldn't do that.

  • 02:19

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And that's because I really am quite sad.However, so that you can all impress mewith your graphs-- in fact, I expect every single personwatching this-- [LAUGH] it'll one person, then--that'll be my mother-- to email me your beautiful graphs.

  • 02:41

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And there'll be a cash prize of zero pence--or that's "dollars," for the American-- to the best graphthat I receive.Although if you can get SPSS to make your graphslook like a cat, then, well, I might send you something nice.

  • 03:01

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Anyway, in the book chapter we use an example,and I'm going to use that example here,of men and women watching different types of filmsand looking at how aroused they get by those films.And that arousal is supposed to indicatehow much they like the film.And we used two films-- Bridget Jones' Diary,which is supposed to appeal to women.

  • 03:21

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: It's, uh-- well, I don't know if this is a British thing,but it's known as a "chick flick."Whereas Memento is-- well, it's kind of gender-nonspecific,really, so it should appeal equally, I think, in theory.So we have these data.These are up on the screen now.And, to draw graph of them, all we

  • 03:43

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: do is use SPSS Graph Menu and then the Chart Builder.Now the Chart Builder gives us a nice little window like this.And basically we have this canvas, here."Canvas" makes it sound like you're making a painting, whichI kind of like.So you have a canvas on which to create your masterpiece.

  • 04:07

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And it also gives you-- unlike if you were a great artist,they don't have a number of templates that they can pick,but maybe they should.I don't know.You know, here's template for a vase of sunflowers or whatever.But in SPSS it gives you some templates for graphs.

  • 04:28

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: There are bar charts.You can see there's a whole variety of bar chartshere, line charts, and so on and so forth,all explained in the book.All of it.Every single one.Now we want to do a bar graph, so we go to the Bar menu.And what we end up wanting to do iswhat's known as a "clustered bar chart."So we double-click on this.And, lo and behold, we get a nice little clustered bar

  • 04:49

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: chart on our canvas.And we also get a window that tells us-- well,allows us to set certain properties of the graph.Now, really, it's an absolute doddle to make it-- I'm sorry,I'm just-- the minute I say things,I keep thinking, mmm, is that an English thing, "doddle"?

  • 05:11

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Maybe.But anyway, hopefully you know what I mean.It's easy.It's really easy to make a graph.What we want to do is we want to plotarousal levels on the y-axis.So there we go.We just drag it over there.And we want to plot film along the x-axis.So the type of films, so we can just drop onto the x-axis.

  • 05:33

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: So we've got Bridget Jones' Diary, then Memento.But also we want to split these bars up by genderso we can have a look at the males and the femalesseparately.So we can drag Gender into our little cluster box over here.So there we go.Our graphic is done.Now the other thing we can do is display error-bar graphs--

  • 05:53

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: uh, sorry-- error bars on the graphs.And, um-- well, in the book, again, Ithink I probably dribble slightlymanically about the wonders of error bars.So tick that, as well.Anything you tick over here in the Properties box,we have to click on Apply to apply to the graph.So we have some nice error bars.

  • 06:13

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: That's all there is to it.If you want to look at other types of graphs,then have a play around, read the book,or just go to the cinema instead.Click on OK.And, in our Output Viewer, we get a beautiful graph.Well, a graph.

  • 06:36

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Now the main purpose of this demonstrationis to show you how to edit this.Now, if you're-- well, you know, if you're a student doinga project or something, then chances are you're goingto want to print this out in black and white and not spendlots of money on color printing.If you're doing a PhD, or if you're an academicand you're submitting something to a journal,

  • 06:56

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: again, typically you just want a black-and-white graph.So Having these colored graphs that SPSS producesis not always what you want.So, to edit a graph, all we need to dois just double-click on it.So we highlight it in the viewer and double-click on it,and it pops up in its own little windowknown as the Chart Editor.

  • 07:17

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And basically you can pretty muchedit any aspect of the graph.This is one of the things that SPSS has reallyimproved on in recent editions.You've got quite a lot of flexibility now to messaround with your graph.So the first thing we can do is have a look at the background.Now you'll notice, if you click on anything in the graph,

  • 07:40

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: it gets highlighted.So I just clicked on the bars.They got highlighted in blue.If I click on the background, that gets highlighted in blue.So you can see what you're going to edit by seeingwhat's surrounded by blue.So if we click on the background to edit it,we just do a double-click.Having done that, we get this Properties window.Woo-woo.

  • 08:00

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And that allows us to change various things.Now, as far as the background goes,well, we have this tab up here-- Fill and Border.So we can change the fill color.Our fill color at the moment is this kind of revolting grey,and it's really quite pointless.We may as well just get rid of it.So we can select Fill here.

  • 08:22

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And instead of that grey, why don't we make it transparent?Now this thing here with a little slash through it,that's transparent color.I guess transparent isn't, strictly speaking,a color, but anyway.It's transparent.So we could apply that.Anything we do in this Properties box,we have to click on Apply for it to work.

  • 08:42

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: So, Apply, and whoa, the background's gone.Hurrah.But we can also-- WOW.Look, it's got a nasty border.Look at this border.We don't need that border.Do we need that border?No.So we can select it again, check the border,and again make it transparent.And click on Apply.There we go-- no border.

  • 09:04

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: That's looking better already.Minimalism-- it's the way forward.We can also edit things like the axes.So if we select the y-axis, you cansee it's highlighted in blue, which tells usthat that's what we're editing.And over here in the Properties, well, to start off with,

  • 09:24

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: we could edit the scale.So we can edit the range of scoresdisplayed-- so the minimum, maximum, and the increment.So let's change this.SPSS by default has made the maximum 40,but let's make it 35.Let's stretch the graph out a bit.So we can apply that.

  • 09:44

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: That's changed.But, by changing that, SPSS in its infinite wisdom has decidedthat we want it to start at 5, which we don't.We want it to start at 0.So, again, we can change that to 0.So notice, as we change these things,the Autos are getting switched off, which is a good thing.But now-- now we've set those two things, SPSS says,

  • 10:05

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: well, let's have a major increment of 10.So it just goes 10, 20, 30.Well, that's rubbish, too.Let's change that to 5 and apply that.Now that's starting to look quite good,in its own special, little way.We can also change the lines.The line at the moment is a solid black line.

  • 10:25

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Well, we could change it.We can change it to one of these styles.So let's have, say, a dotted or sort of dashed line.And notice that it's changed to dashed.At the moment it's black.We could make that another color.So we could, for example, change it to lilac.There you go.

  • 10:47

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Obviously, that's disgusting and far, far too much like pink,for my taste.So we could make it green.Green's a much nice color.Make it green.There it is.It's green.Or we can make it blue.So on and so forth.But, of course, realistically you're probably (LAUGHING)just going to want it to be black.But, you know, the point is you could change if you wanted to.

  • 11:10

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: The other thing we can change is the labelsof the axis and the tick marks.So if we select this tab here, wecan choose not to display the axis title.So we can deselect that, click on Apply.Look-- the title's.I have no idea why you would want to do that,because you should always label your graphs.So that's have it back.

  • 11:32

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: You can also choose whether to displaythe labels of the ticks.So, these numbers.So you could get rid of that, if you wanted to,but again I have no idea why you would want to.But you could.And you could get rid of the tick marks.So, these little horizontal lines.So you could deselect Display Ticks, and they go away.

  • 11:54

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Let's put them back.But you can also change their positions.So, at the moment, they stick outward from the axis.You can make them stick inward, instead.Or indeed you can make them bisect the axis, like that.So you can change lots and lots of things.You can do much the same if you select the x-axis, like so.

  • 12:19

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: We've got the same options, really.We can change the line.And at the moment it's a solid black line, again.But I am going to change this to transparent.We don't really need that line.Lines are for suckers.We can also change the labels and ticks.So, again, we could choose not to display the axis title,

  • 12:41

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: although that's a pretty bad idea.We could choose not to display the labels, although that'sa pretty bad idea, too.We could choose not to display the ticks.Which, in this case, well, we don't reallyneed the ticks at all.No, they're just not doing anything, really.Also, if we go to this Categories tab,

  • 13:03

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: well, we can do a few interesting things here.I've use the term "interesting" fairly liberally.At the moment, we've got Bridget Jones' Diary displayedbefore Memento.Now this list is the order in which the graph displaysthose two things.Now we can move them around.So we could shift Memento up or, indeed,shift Bridget Jones' Diary down.

  • 13:24

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And if we click on Apply it switches them.So we've now got Memento followedby Bridget Jones' Diary.If we switch them back the other way and apply,then they go back the other way.And we can do the same with gender.So up here we've selected the variable Film,but if you select the variable Gender, then again,at the moment we've got males followed by females.But if we shift the order of these and click on Apply,

  • 13:48

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: they reverse.So this is quite good, because itmeans that if you ordered your things in a certain wayand you don't like how it looks, you've got quite a lotversatility to change it round.

  • 14:09

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Now the other thing you can do is change the bars.So if we select the bars, well, youcan see that they're all selected.You've got various options here.So, for example, you can make the bars skinny or wide,like so.So then they've gone all skinny.

  • 14:31

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: Really skinny.I mean, that's horrible.Why would you do that?I like them quite wide, so I set them wide.So they're actually touching each other,because they're friends.You can also change the gap between the clusters.So we've got a gap here that we can either makevery wide by changing that.

  • 14:53

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: So now it's like the two films--You know, one of them really smells.They hate each other.They're at opposite ends of the room.Or we could make them, like, mega mega mega mega mega megamega close to them, so there's no gapbetween the clusters at all.I mean, the defaults here are pretty good, to be honest.You know, you normally want a bit of a gap between the two.

  • 15:16

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: But the point is that you can change it.The other thing you can do is you can add effects.So, for example, you could add a shadow to the bars.But don't.Don't ever do this, because shadows--hideous-- unnecessary.Just-- they're just plain wrong.

  • 15:36

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And, even worse, you could add a 3D effect.But, oh my god, that's just horrible.It doesn't-- well, it doesn't-- [LAUGH] it doesn't tell youanything.Don't do it.Look at those error bars.They're just hideous, and you can't read them.So, although you can change these things, don't.Because if you do-- if you do a graph that's 3D

  • 15:57

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: or has a shadow effect, (WHISPERING)the world will end.(SPEAKING) Really, it ends.It's true.If you don't believe me, just try it.But on your head be it.Because, when the world ends, all of the worldwill blame you for ending it.We can also change these colors by selecting

  • 16:19

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: the bars for the different categories separately.So we can select the female bars.Notice now only the green ones are highlighted.And over here we've got, again, Fill and Border.So we could change the outline color-- so,the line around it-- if we don't happento like the color black for a line,but, you know, it's a good color.Or we could change the fill color,

  • 16:40

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: which is currently green.But if you wanted, like, a nice, monochrome graph,then you might want to change that to, say, white.And if we select the Male bars, we could change the field fromblue to, say, grey.So now we've got a nice kind of greyscale graph.Finally, there's various buttons up here.

  • 17:02

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: And a lot of these relate to, uh-- well, youknow, various things that you might want to do.Like this is adding text to the graph,if we wanted to add some text.See?We can add some text.[TYPING]"This is a graph."And you can do all sorts of other things.

  • 17:24

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: But one that I do want to draw your attention tois this one that looks a bit like a portcullis on a castle.And that does grid lines.So, if you click on that, you get some grid lineson your graph.And again, these are editable.So, for example, these vertical grid lines-- not reallyvery useful in this graph, so we could make them transparent,

  • 17:46

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: to get rid of them.In theory, you should be able to delete them,as well, by pressing Delete.Now these horizontal ones, well, maybe wedon't want them to be big, thick lines like that,so we might make them dotted.And we maybe we change them to grey.There.That's nice, isn't it?

  • 18:09

    ANDY FIELD [continued]: So there you have it.Some nice grid lines, some pretty pointless text,and a nicely edited graph.Once you've done all this stuff, youcan simply close this window.And, in your view--

Video Info

Series Name: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS

Episode: 14

Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd

Publication Year: 2012

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Graphs, SPSS

Keywords: Hollywood film; mathematical computing; Software

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



Professor Andy Field gives an extensive tour of the graph-building capabilities of SPSS. He also explains how to personalize and manipulate the appearance of charts and graphs.

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Editing Graphs

Professor Andy Field gives an extensive tour of the graph-building capabilities of SPSS. He also explains how to personalize and manipulate the appearance of charts and graphs.

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