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  • 00:00

    [MUSIC PLAYING][SAGE video in practice][Developing Mixed Methods Research]

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    GAME ANNOUNCER: Russia versus Italy.

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    NARRATOR: Playing a video game on an iPad isn't unusual.This game, called Coin Soccer, isquick-paced, requiring some dexterity and goodeye-hand coordination.And the goal, if you'll excuse the pun,is to score three goals--

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    WOMAN 1: Oh!I got it!

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    NARRATOR: Before the computer does.Some players struggle to move the coin-like objects,and they all get the whistle for illegal moves.

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    WOMAN: I hate it when that happens.

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    NARRATOR: But what they each do after playing Coin Socceris very unusual.

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    WOMAN 2: I can't seem to move the coin whenI'm swiping with my finger.

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    NARRATOR: They enter their personal reactionsin a journal.

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    WOMAN 1: I also began to learn by watchingas the computer moved its coins.

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    NARRATOR: It's all part of research being conductedby Dr. John Creswell, an applied research methodologisthere at the University of Nebraska.Creswell is interested in gaming research,and his goal is to develop a survey that canbe given to hundreds of people.A survey is a traditional method of collectingquantitative information, such as means and distributions.

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    NARRATOR [continued]: But a journal is one way of getting an in-depth pictureof player reactions, which can thenassist in survey development.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: That might reallyget at people's experiences.

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    NARRATOR: Such experiences are a type of qualitative data.

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    MAN: I think it may become boring over time.

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    NARRATOR: Creswell could have developed his final surveyby simply field-testing a set of pilotquestions-- in other words, usinga preliminary quantitative measure, a pilot survey,to develop his final survey.But there are advantages to adding a qualitative step.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: So it gives youkind of the rich detail that no surveyinstrument, no quantitative measure,is really going to give you.

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    NARRATOR: The integration of qualitative and quantitativedata is called mixed methods research, a fieldCreswell helped to pioneer.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: Hey, thanks for coming in today.I really appreciate your time.

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    NARRATOR: And Creswell will illustratehow to conduct a mixed methods study.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: We're going to talka little bit about playing that Coin Soccer video game.

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    NARRATOR: These eight participantshave played Coin Soccer for two weeks now,and this focus group is a second qualitativephase that will be used to supplement their journals.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: It gives you more detail, for one.It gives you personal stories, anecdotes.

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    NARRATOR: First, whom do they thinkthe game's appropriate for?

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    WOMAN 3: I think it's a good game for anyone 10 or above.

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    NARRATOR: And one player suggested her grandfather.

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    WOMAN 2: It's so easy.And he's 90, and I could-- all youhave to do is just flick it.So I could see him enjoying that, actually.

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    NARRATOR: There were areas of disagreement about the game.

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    WOMAN 4: The biggest skill that I would take away from itis patience.

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    WOMAN 3: I like the complexity of the movement of the coinwhen you flick it.Deciding when to let go.

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    WOMAN 5: It was hard to get the coin to whereI wanted it to go all the time.So that got a little frustrating,and you get bored quickly when you're not good at it.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: And it also gives you the variation.We had quite a few people with different perspectivesgoing on in there.

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    NARRATOR: And some were critical.

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    WOMAN 3: It has a real sterile, quiet feel to it.

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    WOMAN 4: I thought I had shot my coin, but I hadn't.It was still there.And then it said, Illegal Move, in bright red letters.

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    WOMAN 3: It should at least make me laugh,or have some variety or some trash talk, or something.[LAUGHTER]

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    NARRATOR: Armed with the focus group's qualitative feedback,Creswell heads off to combine thiswith the participants' journals, which havebeen previously transcribed.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: And you can see herewhere I have created one-inch margins on each side,so that I can write notes in.You can kind of see I'm working with small sections here.And here, they're beginning to talk about the illegal moves.

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    NARRATOR: Creswell identifies over 60 kinds of commentsand then organizes the comments by themes, seen here in bold.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: If I had a larger database,I would have used one of the qualitative computer softwareprograms.

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    NARRATOR: He quickly designs a pilot survey,which the participants take during a break.But now the participants are back for a second focus group.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: A qualitative phaseto help improve the quantitative instrument.Let's talk about the survey that you filled out.Have you got any thoughts about what you liked about itand what you didn't like, ways we can change it?

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    WOMAN 6: I don't know how to answer one of the questions.It's like, how many times do you play the game?Every day?So actually, sometimes I don't play the game,so I don't know how to answer that question.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: So you may not play it every day.

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    WOMAN 6: No.

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    WOMAN 5: I have the same problem.I don't play, necessarily, every day.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: I learned mostlythat I needed to work on the background,the demographic questions, at the beginning.

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    NARRATOR: So let's summarize this mixed methods approach.Two qualitative phases, a journal, and a focus groupled to a pilot survey, a quantitative measure,which the focus group evaluated.A revised survey, the final quantitative phase,will now be given to a larger population.In short, the value of Coin Soccer

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    NARRATOR [continued]: was seen through a unique approachof combining quantitative and qualitative methodology.From health care and social science settings to schools,mixed methods research is now being used widely.

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    DR. JOHN CRESWELL: They all are beginningto see the value of gathering people'sstories along with the numbers.Where do I see it in 10 years?I think it's going to be the dominant methodology.We always say, in mixed methods, youhave a more complete picture of an understandingof the problem than either quantitative or qualitativeby itself would yield.

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Video Info

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Publication Year: 2013

Video Type:In Practice

Methods: Mixed methods, Survey research, Diary methods, Focus groups

Keywords: practices, strategies, and tools

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



Dr. John Creswell discusses mixed methods research and explains why he favors a mixed approach over a qualitative or quantitative approach. Mixed methods combine qualitative and quantitative methods to achieve more complete data findings. Creswell describes his research into gaming, using both focus groups and survey research.

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Developing Mixed Methods Research

Dr. John Creswell discusses mixed methods research and explains why he favors a mixed approach over a qualitative or quantitative approach. Mixed methods combine qualitative and quantitative methods to achieve more complete data findings. Creswell describes his research into gaming, using both focus groups and survey research.

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