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  • 00:00


  • 00:16

    KEITH PERKS: My name is Keith Perks.[Keith Perks, PhD, Honorary Fellow,University of Brighton Business School]I'm an honorary fellow at the University of Brighton BusinessSchool, where I teach management,international business, and marketing.And over a number of years, I've carried out researchspecializing in quality research methods, whichI've used in my research, and I've alsoused in my teaching and application.

  • 00:38

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: In this session 2, we're going to gofrom the start of your research, when you've identified whatyour aims are and your research questions,and we're going to focus now on literature reviews.[Role of Literature in Qualitative Research]In terms of literature review, why it's importantis to demonstrate that you have readand understand and have knowledgeof the literature in the area that youare going to research in relationto the gap in that research.

  • 01:10

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: Literature in research also has an approachwhereby it is either theory first, deductive,where you use the literature to support propositionsand hypotheses, and from that, test and evaluatethose, and/or theory last, which is inductive,where you use the data to explore and developthe initial theory from the literature.

  • 01:40

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So depending on your approach, whether you'regoing to test a theory, it's normally deductive.If you're going to be carrying out exploratory research,it's often inductive, but deductiveso that you develop and use that inductive approachfrom the data, which, in quantitative research,is not done so frequently.

  • 02:07

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So literature is there to support your research questionsand propositions.It's also part of the triangulation of your work,in the sense that your literaturewill help develop the propositions, whichare soft hypotheses, to support some framework.

  • 02:30

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: And later on, that literature and other literaturewill also either confirm or disconfirmwhat you've found from your empirical studies.So it has those two roles at the beginning,and also towards the end of your research.In terms of the literature review,it requires you to read and understand and integratethe knowledge that you absorb and interpret itin your writing.

  • 02:57

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: This requires a lot of thought and effortin order to achieve this synthesis.[Literature Review] So what I'm going to dois to cover some points of what literature review isand is not.In the first point, a literature reviewis not something where you take a list of ideaswith one single reference, repeat the idea of one paper,then move on to the next.

  • 03:24

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So that's not literature integration.That's description and would not be an example of synthesis.So in the next point, I'm going to saywhat literature review is.[In a Literature Review] A literature reviewis where you put like with like and groupit together and then take other points of like for likeand make a contrast.

  • 03:47

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: And that's where a synthesis of the literature.And this follows that.So that's the literature review.Another point about what literature intergration is notis when you report and redescribethe results of a research, just the results, whatthe results were, and just the outcomesof that particular research, without understandingand probing what the underlying concepts are.

  • 04:20

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So what literature review is, is to understand the underlyingconcepts that inform those papers that you've read,rather than the outcomes and redescription.It's your opportunity to think and understand those ideas.So continuing with the theme of what literature review isand is not, in the first point I'm making,literature review is not somethingwhere you write in a disconnected,disjointed way without a link to your specific researchaim and question, and doesn't follow a logicin terms of your research aim.

  • 05:00

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: [A Literature Review] What literature review is,therefore, is something where you'vethought through and carefully edited and conductedwith a clear logic an organizational structureof the work.Following on from this literature reviewand what's important, what is and is not, what you useliterature review for then can be essentially two ways.

  • 05:29

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: One is theory first, which is deductive,where you take the literature, and fromthat, in quality research, either come upwith some orienting constructs or propositions which you thenevaluate. [deductive research] Or in quantitative research,it's central to that research whereyou develop hypotheses, which you then testand verify without further inductive development.

  • 05:60

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: Theory last is inductive, is where you examine and analyzethe data. [inductive research] And from that data,you see how well it fits or doesn'tfit with your initial ideas or concepts.It might help here to have a conceptual frameworkfrom the original deductive research,evaluate that in the inductive researchto see how well that fits or doesn't fit,or whether new things emerge. [conceptual framework]And that is how inductive research occurs.

  • 06:34

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: Pure inductive research is essentiallytaking just the field work and creating theoryfrom that in practice.Very often, that is rarely used exceptin specialized anthropological studies then.In both cases of deductive or inductive approaches,you can adjust the theory as the data is analyzed,and therefore either develop knowledge or constructa new conceptual theoretical framework, whichis informed by the data from the field work.

  • 07:16

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So literature, besides identifying the gapin the research, is also important for identifyingyour research propositions, or what'scalled orienting constructs, which you can thenevaluate in the research.

  • 07:37

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: In this part of the research, what you are doingis shaping the literature in terms of saying,which of these concepts or constructsare important in terms of answering my researchquestion in terms of, for example,the effect of some consumer behaviortheory in a particular context.

  • 08:03

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: It's also used in order to develop research propositionsin research.A research proposition is a soft hypothesis,and is something which is slightlydifferent to a hypothesis, in the sensethat what it's used for is not to test conclusively,but to see if the data and your propositions fitand have some credibility.

  • 08:38

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: In this next slide, I'm going to explain to you the natureof an orienting construct, which is something that is usedin the work by Miles, Huberman, and SaldaA+-a.And what they mean by that is, rather thana soft propositional hypothesis, youuse concepts and constructs to have an underpinningto use in evaluating your research,without being definitive about whether it'sa proposition or a hypothesis.

  • 09:13

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: It then allows you later on, then, from that construct,to develop some propositions after the data collection,for example.So in some research that was done on binge drinking,the orienting constructs were at the micro level,where the cultural influences of parents, peer group,for example, and education were examined.

  • 09:34

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: [Orienting Constructs] And another groupof orienting constructs were moreat a macro level, the wider socioculturalenvironment in which the individual operates.And this led to two propositions,which had developed after from the empirical data.

  • 09:55

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So it's part deductive, but mostly inductive research.And then this next slide is a continuationof the previous slide in the applied versionof the binge-drinking study, whereit shows how the propositions weredeveloped after the data was collected in an inductive way.

  • 10:16

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: [Examples of orienting constructs (theory first)to develop propositions from empirical data (theory last)]And more detail on this is in the referred paperand in the slide.In this next slide, it's another example,but it's an example of a mix between theory first deductiveand theory last inductive.

  • 10:39

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: And this research was in the area of internationalization.So I'm going to take you through these slides,because it's an example of where earlier, Isaid that you take the initial literature,develop propositions and, followingthe empirical research, you either adjust or changethe propositions based on what the data tells you,rather than what the literature tells you.

  • 11:05

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: And that's an example, if you like, of theory developmentfrom the original theory from the literature,to a new theoretical framework coming from the empirical dataor the field work.So let's take this example of theory first and theory last.In proposition 2, which is theory first, about howmanagers make a decision to internationalize,the proposition was the entrepreneurial manager'sdecision to internationalize is influenced by their homecountry cultural environment.

  • 11:39

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: [Examples of Proposition--Proposition 2(deductive)] This is a very broad definition of "culture."And what we found was that it was, in the new proposition 2,which is theory last, it's not the broad cultural environment.It's the manager's perception of that foreign environment,and what is called their psychic distance--how familiar or unfamiliar they are between their homeand foreign market.

  • 12:06

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So that proposition became perceptionof psychic distance between their homeand foreign market influences the decisionof entrepreneurial managers in mid-size firmsto internationalize.The next examples on proposition 5,theory first, was based on literaturewhich said availability of resourceswas important to internationalize,which occurred in small firms.

  • 12:32

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: [Examples of Proposition] In our work, the entrepreneurial--first of all, the literature-based propositionwas the entrepreneurial manager's decisionto internationalize is influenced by the availabilityof adequate internal resources.What we found was, in these mid-size firms,this new Proposition 5 was to do with how willing theywere to take a risk, given they had more resources.

  • 13:00

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So it was important.So the new theory was the degree of raw resource-based risktolerance moderates the impact of the motivating conditionson the decision to internationalize,meaning that it wasn't resources per se.It's whether or not the risk was worth taking.

  • 13:22

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: And that would either moderate themtowards internationalizing or not internationalizing.So it was a more subtle propositionbased on how managers thought.And in Proposition 6, theory first,the entrepreneurial manager's decision-makingto internationalize is influencedby their prior history of decision-making,again, based on the literature.

  • 13:45

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: It's called past dependence.They would follow decisions they alwayshad followed, because that gave them certainty and security.The new Proposition 6, theory last,the strength of the business caseover and above the opportunity moderatesthe impact of the motivating conditions on the decisionto internationalize.

  • 14:06

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So if the business case was strong,and they hadn't made an internationalization decisionbefore, they would make a new decision,which wasn't based on their prior historyof decision-making.So 3 out of the 7 propositions are new theory last.So in this final slide on the use of literature in research,what you're using literature here foris, used alongside the empirical datathat you've collected in the analysis,to explore and use knowledge to see how well it fitsand whether what is written in the literatureis confirmed by your work, or you find something different.

  • 14:48

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: [Using Literature] And then I will give youan example of this from some researchon international business.In the example of where you're comparingwhat is said in the literature and whether it fitswith your empirical work, an example of thatis working in the area of international business, whichargues that the firm and the market are not distinct,but are fuzzy.

  • 15:19

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: So the literature suggests the boundarybetween the firm and the market are fuzzy, and not,as suggested by export behavior theory,dichotomous, which means that the internal sideof the business and the external side of the business,there is a fuzziness, an interplaying between that.What our research did was confirmedthat the distinction between the firm and the marketwas fuzzy, in the sense that the external market was integratedwithin the firm.

  • 15:50

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: And if the business case for internationalizationthen might override any entrepreneurial imperative,indicating the synthesis of opportunity-seeking andadvantage-seeking mindset.So what it's saying there is entrepreneursin international business won't necessarily justdo a very analytical approach towards markets,but will also look for opportunityand will identify that.

  • 16:19

    KEITH PERKS [continued]: And there will be no boundary between the firmand the marketplace.[Further Reading][MUSIC PLAYING]

Video Info

Series Name: Applied Qualitative Marketing Research

Episode: 3

Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Publication Year: 2020

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Literature review, Hypothesis, Marketing research

Keywords: data analysis; data collection; deduction; empirical data; empirical research; hypothesis (research); induction / analytic induction; literature reviews; marketing research; qualitative research methods; research design; research questions ... Show More

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



Keith Perks, Honorary Fellow at the University of Brighton Business School, discusses the uses of literature in qualitative marketing research.

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Applied Qualitative Marketing Research: Uses of Literature

Keith Perks, Honorary Fellow at the University of Brighton Business School, discusses the uses of literature in qualitative marketing research.

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