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  • 00:00

    [MUSIC PLAYING][Research Methods Tutorial][An Introduction to Content Analysis on Qualitative Data]

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    QIN SUN: My name is Qin Sun.I'm an Assistant Professor of Marketingat the David Nazarian College of Business and Economicsat the California State University, Northridge.I have taught marketing courses, like market research,and international marketing, marketing strategy, researchmethods and fieldwork, and advanced data managementand analysis.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: I also did various research projects,like country branding, destination branding,cross-cultural marketing, teaching innovation,and digital marketing.[What is qualitative data?]When we do market research, we are collectingdifferent kinds of data.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: One is called the secondary data,and the other is primary data.When we do the primary data collection,we are also looking at the two type of primary data.One is qualitative data, and the other is quantitative data.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: Here, we look at the qualitative data collectedfrom the primary qualitative research studies, like casestudies, ethnographies, focus group studies, and interviews.When we do this kind of exploratory or qualitativeprimary research studies, we ask open-ended questionsto get insight on some specific issues.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: We want to understand the perceptions, attitude,and the evaluations of the peopleon some specific product, service, or firm.When we ask this kind of open-ended questions,we collect the text responses from the respondents.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: We call it qualitative data.We also call it unstructured data or text data.[What is content analysis?]When we look at this kind of qualitative data,we need to do content analysis in orderto get the insight from the text responses.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: When we do content analysis, we look at the responsesfrom the respondents.We try to identify the commonalities among the textresponses in order to see the common themes outof the participants.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: What are the common interests of the target marketon this specific product?What are the most preferred price rangefor this kind of product?And when we do content analysis, wecan get this kind of insight.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: [How do you do content analysis on qualitative data?]There are some specific steps involved in this contentanalysis process.I will give you an example to show how we can do the contentanalysis manually in Excel.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: So I will use one of my research projectsto show how we can do the content analysis.There are several steps involved in this process.The first step is to put one question in one column.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: So if we have four questions, we have four columnsin one Excel document.Then we look at one specific question and all the textresponses to that question.We read through all these text responsesfor that specific question until we identify some recurringthemes from the text responses to the same questions.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: So the next step is to highlight the common themesor the recurring themes from the responsesto the same questions.We can use the different colors to highlightsome common themes.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: For example, we can use red to highlight all the keywordsrelated to one theme, then use bluefor all the keywords related to another common themeso that we can identify different categories.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: After we identify different categories,we label the categories using some words,and describe the definitions of each category.After we have these different categoriesfor the same question, we develop a code.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: We assign a code to each category.If we wanted to do additional statistical analysis,we could assign numbers to each code or each that we can do additional statistical analysisfor the qualitative data.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: [An Example of Content Analysis]As I just explained, there are several stepsinvolved in the content analysis process.I'm giving an example here using one of my research projectson keyword search to show the steps involved in the contentanalysis process.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: The first step is to enter the question and all the responsesto that question in one column.So one column in the Excel is for one question.And the second column is for second question,so on and so forth.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: Here, for the open-ended questions,we enter the question in the first cell, then all the textresponses for the same questions under the second cellin the same column.And for the demographics, because theyare structured questions, so I have codes here.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: Here, I only look at the first questionto show the content analysis process.Here, are the first questions and the textresponses to the first question.Since I have over 200 text responsesto each open-ended question here,I only show the first 23 questionson how we can identify the commonalities or the themeor the category for each question here.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: When we do the content analysis, weread through all the text responses to each questionmultiple time until we find some commonalities, some recurringkeywords.Here, when we read the first five text responsesto this first question, which is about the goal to typein keywords to search online.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: And when we read through the text responseshere to this question, we notice some commonalitiesin the text responses.And I highlight it here in red.That is "to find exactly what I'm looking for."So in other words, for almost all thefirst 23 respondents here, we can find some commonalitieshere.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: That is, the one goal to search online using keywordis to find what they are looking for,to find the relevant information to what they are looking for.So we highlighted it in red.All that are red here show the same categoryor same commonality or same theme out of all the responseshere.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: And we also see other colors here in blue.This is the second category we identifiedthrough our iterative process to read through all textresponses.When we highlight the same category in blue,we identify the commonalities among all the bluehighlights here.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: In other words, all are related to howto get to the information in a timely manner.No matter what kind of words they use here,like "without having to open all thelinks," or "direct access," or "on the first try,"or "the first link," or have "the top 10searches be relevant," something like that,all these blue highlights show the same category,to save time for the online keyword search.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: So in other words, we identify at least the two categories,or two commonalities, or two themes for the first question'sresponses here.After we have all the different colorsto highlight the different categories,we need to label it and define it.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: Here, is the label and the definitionfor each category for this question, the first question.As I show here, we use accuracy.We use some keywords to label each theme or category here.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: The first category is accuracy.And we define it using some keywordsas we identified through our reading of text responses.In other words, all these keywordsare from the text responses to helpus to elaborate that definition of these categories.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: And same thing for the second category on time saving.So we use time saving to label this category,the second category.Then we define it using some keywordsfrom the text responses, which usuallyare recurring keywords we identified in the textresponses to this question.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: And after we label and define each category here, we code it.Like C1 here is the code for the first category.C2 is the code for the second category.And usually, the first category is the most frequent category.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: That means that this category has the largest frequenciesof the common keywords, recurring keywords in allthe text responses.And after we label, define, and code the categories,we needed to have another person--second person or even third person--to code the text responses to each question basedon the coding instruction we identified here.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: Like here we have an MBA student to helpus to code the text responses to each open-ended question.And we compare her code with my codeto see the agreement between different coders.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: We call it inter-rater reliability.If the agreement is above 85%, we would say wehave high inter-rater reliabilityThat's one key criteria to evaluatethe quality of the content analysis results,inter-rater reliability.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: So this shows the process for the typical contentanalysis in a manual way.If we want to additional-- to do an additional statisticalanalysis, we can even assign some numbers to each categoryhere so that we can have this kind of numbersfor each category or for each question.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: And then we can do some statistical analysisby importing this kind of Excel datainto some statistics softwares.[Software & Application of Content Analysis]The content analysis process I discuss hereshould be same for any type of content analysis,no matter we do it manually or using some software.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: And there are some applications for this kindof content analysis.One typical example is to do content analysison online consumer reviews.In nowadays digital marketing world,there are a lot of people postingtheir comments, their product reviews, their complaintsonline.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: And firms started to look at these online consumer reviewsto get insight about the products,consumer evaluation of the products, even their customerservice, or even their firm.So if you can apply this kind of content analysis processto look at the online consumer reviewor any other online post, you canget some better insight on some consumer insightor consumer perceptions, attitudes,or behavioral orientations towards a specific product,service, or even firm, so that you can use it for marketingor managerial purpose.

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    QIN SUN [continued]: [Conclusion]In summary, the content analysis Idiscussed here provide some basic foundationfor qualitative research studies,no matter if it's a focus group study or interviews.

Video Info

Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Publication Year: 2020

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Content analysis, Coding, Data quality and data management, Marketing research

Keywords: coding schemes; content analysis; data management; exploratory study; marketing research; primary data; qualitative data analysis; qualitative data collection; qualitative research methods; Secondary data; text analysis; thematic analysis ... Show More

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

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Events Discussed:



Qin Sun, Assistant Professor of Marketing at California State University, Northridge, discusses and provides an example of content analysis on qualitative data.

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An Introduction to Content Analysis on Qualitative Data

Qin Sun, Assistant Professor of Marketing at California State University, Northridge, discusses and provides an example of content analysis on qualitative data.

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