The Fisher exact test is an inferential statistical procedure to compare the number of people or things falling into different categories. It is applicable in two situations. The first one is when a sample is drawn from a population and two categorical variables are recorded for each element in the sample, for example, political affiliation (Democrat/Republican/Other) and potential vote on a certain proposal (in favor/opposed/abstained). In this case, researchers would be testing whether there is an association between these two variables (or, putting it more rigorously, whether the two variables are independent). The second situation arises when two or more samples are drawn from independent populations and measurements for one categorical variable are recorded for each sampled element. In this instance, the hypothesis of interest ...
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