In general terms, cheating is an action taken by an individual to intentionally bias assessment results. The “individual” involved can be anyone with knowledge of or access to testing materials and/or the testing process: “testing materials” include test items, test booklets, scoring templates, answer sheets, score reports, or databases for item responses or test scores; and “testing processes” include test development, technical aspects of test delivery, test proctoring, test scoring, and test reporting. Cheating may involve one or more examinees, educators, third-party test preparation entities, testing staff, parents, or representatives of the testing company or its various partners and vendors. Although many actions may result in biased test scores, cheating requires that the actions are done with the goal of biasing the results. Similarly, whether ...

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