The term weighting refers to the process of incorporating sampling weights into analyses when using educational data collected through a complex sampling procedure, one in which the sample cannot be assumed to be from a simple random sampling process. The use of sampling weights is often a challenge for data analysts who are new to sampling theory. This entry introduces different types of sampling weights and the importance of incorporating sampling weights into analyses when using data collected through a multistage sampling procedure.


For data selected following a complex sampling design, the sample itself may not reflect the population characteristics in known ways. Data analysts therefore must incorporate sampling weights to more appropriately mimic the population and thus to obtain unbiased estimates of population parameters. For ...

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