Standardized tests are evaluative devices or procedures developed to ascertain a sample of behavior from an individual in a domain of interest, in which the test administration and scoring process is uniform across individuals, and both reliability and validity evidence exists such that inferences regarding the person’s trait can be made from the test score. These assessments are often used to compare individuals or groups on current and predicted performance in different domains. For example, a paper-and-pencil mathematics test may be administered to a group of individuals to obtain a sample of mathematics ability or knowledge. Each individual receives the same instructions, is given the same amount of time to complete the test, and all answers are scored the same way (e.g., one point awarded ...
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