Quantitative research methods primarily rely on the collection and analyses of numerical data in the study of social phenomena. This methodological approach has been extensively applied in educational research. Embedded in the paradigm of positivism, quantitative research methods emphasize empirical inquiry to understand social phenomena. Educational research employing these research methods is expected to demonstrate internal validity (i.e., accurate interpretability of research results), external validity (i.e., generalizability of research results), and reliability (i.e., consistency and replicability of the methods and results) of the findings.
Quantitative approach as a research method has its roots in positivism. According to Sotirios Sarantakos, positivism views “reality” as objective, fixed, and independent of human consciousness. It is governed by natural laws that are strict and unchangeable. The ...
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