A very simple design in quantitative research involves the random allocation of a sample of N individuals to two different groups. The groups are exposed to different treatments, and the research question is whether there is any difference between the two groups on some criterion variable. Classically, this question is addressed using Student’s t test for independent groups or the equivalent one-way between-subjects analysis of variance. However, this procedure assumes that the criterion variable in question (a) is measured on an interval or ratio scale, (b) is normally distributed, and (c) has the same variance in both of the groups. The median test was devised for use in situations in which one or more of these assumptions is not met. This entry describes the derivation ...
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