Throughout history, observation of face features, the characteristics of or movements of the face, have been used to draw conclusions about a range of issues related to personality and behavior. Facial features were once used to draw inferences about personality traits such as intelligence, agreeableness, or deviance. More recently, observations of the movement and positioning of facial features have been used as indicators of expressions of pain, deception, and emotion. This entry focuses on how face features can be measured through observation and offers a brief discussion of face features related to the communication of deception and emotion.
A variety of coding systems were developed in the 1970s and 1980s for use in the study of facial ...
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