Meta-analysis is a de facto statistical tool to synthesize research findings in educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. Applications of meta-analysis have been increased tremendously in the past few decades. Statistical models for meta-analysis have also been improved and extended to include univariate, multivariate, and three-level meta-analyses, and meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). Meta-analysis can now be used not only to estimate an average effect but also to test complicated theories involving structural equation models. To conduct a meta-analysis, [Page 989]researchers first have to extract effect sizes and study characteristics from the studies. The effect sizes are used to quantify the effectiveness of the experiments or the associations among the variables of interest. These effect sizes are combined by either a fixed- or ...
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