Simple bivariate correlation is a statistical technique that is used to determine the existence of relationships between two different variables (i.e., X and Y). It shows how much X will change when there is a change in Y. This basic question of, “whether or not two variables are related,” stimulates virtually all quantitative research in the social and behavioral sciences. For example, a simple research design may seek to determine the relationship between class attendance (X) and final exam scores (Y) in a freshman seminar course (N = 100). After comparing the 200 total observations that represent the variables—100 for student attendance and 100 for exam scores—a relationship, as well as how intense or powerful the relationship is, can be determined.
In addition to measuring association ...
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