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In an attempt to control for unwanted variability, researchers often implement designs that pair or group participants into subsets based on common characteristics (e.g., randomized block design) or implement designs that observe the same participant across a series of conditions (e.g., repeated-measures design). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a common statistical method used to analyze data from a randomized block or repeated-measures design. However, the assumption of normality that underlies ANOVA is often violated, or the scale of measurement for the dependent variable is ordinal-level, hindering the use of ANOVA. To address this situation, economist Milton Friedman developed a statistical test based on ranks that may be applied to data from randomized block or repeated measures designs where the purpose is to detect ...

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