How to Conduct Online Focus Groups for Your Business Research Study: Design, Recruitment, and Facilitation


This guide introduces you to the research process involved in designing and conducting online focus groups. Focus groups are a powerful research methods approach for qualitative data collection, which, if used well, can be instrumental in capturing rich data sets to inform your research. Aspects of the process can be challenging, and this guide will support you in understanding the differences between using a face-to-face or online focus group model, how to recruit participants, and to confidently facilitate a discussion that will engage all your participants in an interactive discussion. Online focus groups have grown in popularity and this guide will take you through the appropriate processes to ensure you collect a rich data set to address your research questions.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this case study, readers should be able to:

  • Identify the relative advantages or disadvantages of online versus face-to-face focus-group delivery formats
  • Design and apply all of the documentation required to inform participants of a research study, whilst adhering to ethical considerations for the data collected
  • Target and recruit participants who will participate in a focus group
  • Determine the optimal number of participants in a focus group
  • Facilitate the running of a focus group to gain optimal conditions for data collection


This guide will introduce you to the research process involved in conducting online focus groups for your business research study. Whether you have conducted focus groups before, or have no experience in conducting focus groups, it is our hope that this guide will support you in navigating the challenges involved in organizing and running online focus groups. It will inform the decisions that you through effective design, recruitment, and facilitation of this powerful data collection method.

A Brief Introduction to Focus Groups as a Research Method Tool

Focus groups have been used in the social sciences as a research approach since the early 1940s. Their success is partly explained because they allowed researchers to move away from interviewer-dominated research methods and focus on exploring a particular situation. An article by Merton and Kendall (1946), which examined citizen attitudes on US involvement in World War II, is considered the first to use focus groups. This involvement of asking individuals to share and explain their reactions, captures qualitative data, which can lead to an in-depth understanding of social issues. Focus groups explicitly use group interaction as part of the method, thus giving it a heuristic value. The communication that occurs between the research participants is the hallmark of focus groups, providing valuable insights into the social phenomenon under investigation. A point Richard A. Krueger, an internationally recognized leading expert on focus group methods highlighted in his co-authored book on focus groups: “we have gotten tiny glimpses of worlds that we otherwise do not experience (Krueger & Casey, 2015, p. xix).”

Focus groups are a well-established data collection method and one of the few inherently social data collection methods available (Cyr, 2019). There are three levels of analysis possible: the individual level, the group level, and an interactive level. Unlike a group interview, focus groups emphasize a specific theme or topic, such as investigating the reasons why undergraduate students decide to attend a university, which is explored in depth. In contrast, group interviews often encompass a variety of topics. A focus group explores participants’ opinions, experiences, and perspectives. The relatively informal discussion in a focus group occurs in the presence of usually two facilitators, one who leads the discussion and one who acts as an observer noting participants, behaviors. These facilitators’ roles may interchange during the focus group. The individual who conducts the focus group in some research methods literature, is referred to as a moderator.

The benefit of focus groups is that they can encourage people to participate who may otherwise be reluctant to be interviewed on their own. It is also a good method for generating ideas and opinions amongst participants who may feel they have nothing to say but will engage in discussion when encouraged by other participants’ comments. A further strength of the focus group is that the use of multiple participants can lead to more varied and nuanced responses are found in a single interview, and it also allows for real-time, unfiltered responses on your chosen topic. The decision to adopt focus groups as a method of data collection may appear simple and convenient; however, it is important to also recognize some of the challenges of such an approach. Krueger and Casey (2015) identify known criticisms of focus groups, which include: (1) focus group participants may invent answers so as to not admit a lack of knowledge, (2) only superficial or trivial comments may be gathered if the group is too large or the topic too complicated; and (3) dominant individuals can influence results. However, no research method is flawless, and the eventual quality and success of the research is due to the astuteness of the researcher, the soundness of the design, and how expertly the research is conducted, and to the choice of an appropriate environment.

The ability to collect participants’ opinions, experiences, and perspectives sometimes see focus groups used in a mixed methods approach in the guise of exploratory research design. This research design uses the focus group data to inform a more meaningful survey to generate a more robust, larger statistical sample for analysis. Alternatively, the explanatory sequential design allows the researcher to use a focus group to explore themes generated by a quantitative survey.

Section Summary

  • Focus groups allow for a qualitative data collection method used to gain an in-depth understanding of social issues.
  • The insights gained from the interactions of members of the groups discussing their opinions and experiences of the research topic represent the hallmark of the focus group method.
  • Whilst focus groups provide many benefits, there are also some criticisms, some of which can be overcome with expert facilitation by the researcher.

Design: Considering Online Versus Face-To-Face Focus Groups

The COVID-19 pandemic forced researchers to adopt online focus groups as a research method because of the need for social distancing, which thus accelerated its more widespread adoption (Marques et al., 2021). This increased use of online focus groups has led to an opportunity to improve the design and implementation of focus groups virtually using different protocols for recruiting, consenting, and working with participants.

Traditionally, focus groups have been conducted in person with face-to-face facilitation. The known barriers to this delivery include high dropout rates, the need to hire a venue and catering, and the need to target participants living locally (or incur costly travel expenses). There is a growing interest in utilizing online platforms to run focus groups, which can mitigate some of these challenges. Focus group methodology can be adapted to be entirely online. A study by Halliday et al., (2021) demonstrated comparable dropout rates utilizing online delivery, whilst offering the advantage of enabling demographically and geographically diverse participants to attend, with significant direct savings in terms of time and cost of travel or other incurred expenses. Some authors have commented on the technological barriers when using an online method, but Halliday et al., (2021) reported that none of their 49 participants encountered any major technological issues. In addition, research conducted by Marques et al., (2021) identified that their focus group moderators believed that overall participants were more relaxed online, more eager to share their experiences, and more engaged during the meetings.

There are some challenges to consider, despite the advantages of online focus groups, although rare nowadays, such as participants without access to computer equipment would be restricted or even excluded. Participants living in rural areas can also face issues with bandwidth, which may cause them to drop in and out of the call. A level of technical experience is needed to handle receiving project information sheets and consent forms via email and utilizing the virtual platforms for participation, which can inhibit elderly participants. Less technologically savvy participants may be more reluctant to take part and require time for the researchers to help these individuals set up.

It is important the researchers check technology in advance, in terms of each of the participant’s capability and “comfort” (Rezabek, 2000, p. 13). In our experience, our participants were familiar with using the online platforms, however, we did have technical issues with cameras not working and bandwidth dropping, with participants having to leave and re-join. This became part of what was expected and albeit frustrating at times, we were able to manage continued discussions. It is also for this reason that we recommend that a second facilitator—or so-called co-pilot—shoulder the additional responsibilities of supporting the chat function, respond to individuals with technology issues, communicate with participants in the online waiting room, and observe the behavior of the participants during the focus group. We found that the presence of a second facilitator in an online focus group is invaluable, not only for the previously mentioned reasons—e.g., note-taking—but also in supporting real-time discussions. This allows the lead facilitator to have time to think and consider further questions, whilst allowing the other facilitator to sustain the discussion. A further advantage arises when analyzing the data, because having two researchers helps with the coding and scrutiny of the data.

Another design decision that is needed is which virtual platform to utilize. The two most used platforms are Zoom (Zoom Video Communications, Inc., San Jose, CA) and Microsoft Teams. Zoom gained widespread use during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. It has a user-friendly design, and an ease of use for first-time users. Microsoft Teams is used by the business community and many universities. It, like Zoom, provides useful features such as a chat function, a waiting room, or a lobby and requires a password for entry or entry via a URL link, which will only be available to the participants. Both platforms provide ease of use for the facilitators in terms of recording the focus group and an option to transcribe the narrative. When considering which platforms to use, it is also important to identify a platform that your institution has a license for and can provide technology support. At the time of writing, Zoom provides a free version of the software, but this is time limited to 40 minutes before the meeting is ended and so a paid for subscription is needed.

Another role for one of the facilitators is to confirm the participants’ identities in the waiting room or lobby and change their screen names to allow confidentiality between participants (unless they already know each other). In addition, the second facilitator should also check that the participant has a private area or space for the duration of the focus group and that they have no other commitments, so that they can give the focus group their full attention. During one of our focus groups, we had participants leave to collect children from school and later return, enter into a taxi, and continue until they arrived at their appointment. Due to the nature of the focus group being online, we were able to deal with this scenario and still engage in a meaningful discussion. In some ways, this changing environment helped to sustain the call’s energy, because the facilitators and the participants were still able to interact (It is important to note that this may not be possible where you are discussing confidential or very sensitive matters). However, you should include in your information sheet that participants should ideally be present for the full call and in a private area.

We find it important that you ask your participants to keep their cameras on during the focus group, to keep them engaged, but also to give other participants confidence in being able to see each participant’s behaviors and actions. The concern is that participants who are not on camera may be distracted by other activities, such as social media. Additionally, if a camera is not switched on, the facilitator and other participants may forget to include the participant in the discussion because they cannot readily see visible signals, such as participants nodding their heads in agreement. However, it is accepted that facial expressions can still be difficult to read on camera (Edmunds, 1999). If you have more vulnerable or less confident participants who prefer not to use their cameras, we recommend using an alternative form of data collection, such as an individual interview.

When you start your online focus group takes the time to discuss Netiquette with the participants on how to behave online, for example, muting the microphone when not speaking, particularly if there is background noise, or raising the virtual hand to speak. It is recognized however that the physical proximity of facilitators and participants in face-to-face focus groups may make it easier to identify someone wanting to speak. An online focus group creates a slightly detached interaction because it is more challenging to judge multiple participants by body language. Table 1 below lists the key advantages and disadvantages associated with adopting online focus groups or face-to-face focus groups.

Table 1. A Comparison of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Running Online Focus Groups versus Face-to-Face Focus Groups.

Online Focus Group

Face-to-Face Focus Group


Can recruit from a larger pool of participants, as distance is unimportant. Less costly for participants as they do not need to commute to a chosen location; this flexibility can encourage more participants to volunteer to participate.

Can schedule during evenings when participants are free from other commitments.

Opportunities to have a greater number of participants in each focus group (typically 8-12)

There is no requirement for participants to have adequate technology skills.

Some participants are more relaxed in their own homes and thus more involved in the focus group. Deeper content and substance from responses.

Easier for moderators and participants to observe other participants’ behavior and facial expressions, as well as better sense the mood in the room.

Can use video conferencing technology such as Zoom or Microsoft Teams to record focus groups. This technology can also generate a transcript.

Potentially could run a focus group with one facilitator as technology can record audio-visually and transcribe discussion.


Technology issues can delay the start of the focus group or interrupt the flow of the conversation.

Unable to recruit participants from a wider geographical area. Possible participants may use cost and time as a reason for not participating, worse participants may fail to appear subsequently citing cost and time.

Fewer participants, six or less to enable better interaction.

Some participants can feel more nervous socially meeting other participants in a room and may not be as open to expressing their thoughts.

Technology issues prevent participation participants from either joining or increase the likelihood of dropping out.

Costs associated with reimbursing participants (e.g. transport costs).

Onus is on participant to join via the link; some may forget to join, despite reminders.

Costs associated with printing out paperwork.

Facilitator may forget to record the focus group or technology fails to record.

Requirement to book and pay for a venue.

A recording device needs to be brought to the focus-grouped.

Source: Adapted from Marques et al., 2021.

Section Summary

  • Online focus groups have grown in popularity because of their many advantages, such as access to a greater pool of participants. However, there are also disadvantages of online focus groups, such as typically running with a smaller number of participants.
  • Decisions should be made on the design of the focus groups, including the most appropriate online platform to use, such as MSTeams or Zoom, and how to manage the interactive discussions.
  • The limitations of online focus groups can be addressed by ensuring participants switch on their cameras and are aware of the netiquette on how to identify when they would like to speak.

Design: Sample Size, Survey Guide, and Paperwork

The planning stage is often the most difficult but important for the effective running of your focus group. This will take place throughout your study but issues must be identified and addressed at the start. These include defining the purpose and outcomes of the study; developing the timeline for the study; determining who the participants will be, writing the questions in the interview guide; developing a recruitment plan; setting the dates, times, and location (or decision for an online delivery); and designing the analysis plan (Morgan et al., 1998). When designing the study, it is crucial to identify the optimal sample size of each focus group in terms of the number of participants as well as the number of focus groups that will be conducted.

The quality of the discussion is affected by the sample size. In traditional in-person focus groups, these will typically run with six to eight people but can be as many as 12 people. The group must be small enough to enable everyone to express their thoughts but also large enough to provide a diversity of viewpoints. When the group is too large there is a danger of the group fragmenting, and frustrations can form when participants get insufficient time to express their points, due to insufficient pauses in the conversation.

Researchers are finding that online focus groups run more optimally with fewer participants than traditional in-person focus groups. Time is needed to troubleshoot technology issues, support the delay from participants who are required to raise a virtual hand to speak, and ensure all participants have an opportunity to speak. The lack of non-verbal cues and vocal cues during online activities, combined with the previously mentioned issues, have led us to conclude that three to five individuals are the optimal sample size for online focus groups, with four individuals being regarded as an ideal number.

Designing the interview guide for your focus groups is instrumental to the success of the data collection and often seen as an art form. Whole books have been written on this topic alone; for example, Morgan and Krueger (1998a, p. xix), who note that “clear and thoughtful questions are a foundation of high-quality focus group research.” Some key pointers are that the questions should be asked in a conversational manner as the focus group is a social experience and an informal environment is needed. The wording of the questions should be clear and understandable. Time should be spent revising the guide and piloting the questions, for example, posing the questions to another researcher or classmate. The researcher needs to review the questioning strategy for example whether to create a topic guide (with a list of topics and issues to be explored) and how the tone of the questioning can encourage the discussion to be meaningful. Alternatively, a questioning route involves creating a sequence of questions, which enhances the consistency between facilitators and can support more efficient analysis but will take considerable time to compile and can lead to some awkwardness if one of the facilitators is not fully comfortable with the questions.

It is important to prepare a draft of questions, and to share and revise these with your research team or supervisor. You may group questions into categories. It is useful to prepare an opening question that will get the participants to know each other and to feel connected. Navigating seamlessly through transition questions into key questions and ending with a question that will bring closure to the discussion. Morgan and Krueger have suggested five types of questions, as illustrated in Table 2, which is helpful when designing your interview guide.

Table 2. Categories of Questions.

Question Type



Participants become acquainted and feel connected.


Begin discussion of a topic.


Move smoothly and seamlessly into key questions.


Obtain insight into areas of central concern in the study.


Help researchers determine where to place emphasis and bring closure to the discussion.

Source:Morgan & Krueger, 1998a

There now follows some insights into the design of the types of questions to include in the focus group. It is beneficial to include open-ended questions to enable the participants to determine the direction of the response whilst preventing the use of “yes’ or “no” answers. The participants should be asked to recollect and reflect on personal experiences, but the facilitator should avoid asking “Why” questions following these personal reflections, as this goes against the impulsiveness of real-life decisions. It is important to keep the questions simple and to be cautious about giving examples as they may channel participants to give similar examples. It is recommended that initially, you use generic questions before specifically focusing on the issue you wish to explore.

We found it useful at the outset of a focus group discussion to use “ice-breakers” to enable participants to become attuned to the topic. These “ice breakers” can provide background data such as why the participants chose to study at university; this contributed to the research topic under study but also encouraged participants who may be shyer to engage in the discussion. The questions should then move on to focus on the topic under research, but avoid putting words in the participants’ mouths. The questions should encourage participants to discuss both positive and negative features. Based on the participants’ responses, the facilitator can introduce follow-up questions that are useful to the study.

As with any data collection, there is a requirement to submit an ethics application to your institution for approval via their ethics committee before participants are recruited. This bureaucratic step ensures you have taken into consideration your sample criteria, method of sampling, and identifies steps to support the anonymity and confidentially of your participants. The audio recording should be stored and used to subsequently aid data analysis. You should also arrange the following: (1) A Participants information sheet. This sheet provides details of the study and contact information for the researchers and should be provided to participants to encourage recruitment of participants and to ensure they are well informed on the study before agreeing to participate. (2) A consent form (see Appendix 1 for a Sample Consent Form). (3) A draft of the proposed questions.

Section Summary

  • The quality of the discussion is affected by the sample size of the focus group, with the optimal sample size being different in a face-to-face versus an online focus group.
  • Designing the interview guide for your focus groups is instrumental to the success of the data collection and hence time should be spent deciding on the questioning strategy and piloting your questions in advance.
  • It is important to get all the key paperwork in place to ensure participants are fully informed before participating and that ethical considerations have been made.


There cannot be a focus group without the recruitment of participants who have direct experience with the topic under study. It is recommended that you recruit more participants than is necessary as evidence frequently suggests several volunteers will drop out (this holds for both online and in-person focus groups). This stage can be difficult if the participants being sought are rare and difficult to access, therefore you may wish to use a gatekeeper to access this sample. You may also wish to offer a nominal amount to recognize the participant’s time (e.g. gift voucher). We find it more beneficial to recruit participants who are confident and articulate and keen to participate in the conversation but are aware there are also limitations as you are capturing the view of a particular population. You must plan your recruitment strategy, notably who will be involved. What are the inclusion and exclusion criteria? How many participants are needed? How many focus groups to run? (Bell, Bryman, and Harley, 2022). It is important to bear in mind that the greater the number of groups convened, the more complex the analysis will be. When a facilitator begins to anticipate quite accurately the responses of the next group, the facilitator has likely conducted enough focus groups. This is similar to the notion of theoretical saturation which signals the end of data collection (Hennink & Kaiser, 2021).

Another area to consider is the appropriate composition of the group. The participants may already know each other with natural groupings such as students in the same university program or members of the same club, in which case the snowball sampling method can be used. Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling method, which involves asking individuals, perhaps already recruited, to recommend other participants. If the focus group is intended to explore collective understandings or shared meanings, then shared backgrounds and a degree of homogeneity can accelerate the discussion and allow for quicker engagement. However, it is acknowledged that too great a degree of homogeneity may bias subsequent results and fail to generate worthwhile data.

A recruitment strategy involves developing a protocol for contacting potential participants, screening them to meet the criteria for the study through emails or telephone calls, and then following up contacts with the Participant Information sheet and Informed Consent Form. These documents should be sent to potential contacts who show interest. Explaining the focus group as a small group discussion can also help draw in volunteers and helps to prevent it from sounding intimidating. Participants who have an interest in the research study area, are more likely to be recruited. From here, a schedule should be drawn up to allocate participants to relevant dates and times for each focus group.

Section Summary

  • Recruiting enough participants who have knowledge of the topic area is an important but also challenging step in focus group research.
  • The use of snowball sampling and a detailed and clear Participant Information Sheet can enhance the recruitment of participants for focus groups.
  • There is a need for homogeneity in the focus group participants where the group members must have something in common, to enable the conversation to flow.


A key aim for the facilitation of a focus group is to make the participants feel comfortable, respected, and free to offer their opinions without being judged. It is important to provide a clear introduction to the topic area of the conversation at the start of the session, to relay to the participants their area of commonality, and to reassure them. It becomes challenging when individuals arrive late to the focus group and hence miss the introductions. Disclosures by participants may be easier in some settings than in other settings. You want to know what participants really think and feel about the topic under investigation and so ensuring they feel comfortable in whatever environment the focus group is being conducted in is important. Some individuals will find it easy and natural to speak out, but others require trust and more support to speak. The facilitator should not be in a position of power or influence but should encourage comments of all types, both positive and negative, being careful not to make judgments or give their own opinion (through speech or body language). The role of the facilitator is to ask questions, listen, keep the conversation on track, and to make sure everyone has a chance to share their views, opinions, or story.

It is recommended that facilitators start by thanking the participants for attending and introduce themselves and their roles. The ground rules for the focus group should be identified, including the expectations that everyone will speak, and that the facilitator might have to hold back or encourage dominant or quiet participants. Participants should be informed of how they can make it known that they would like to contribute to the discussion, such as the raise-hand reaction button. It is recommended that the chat feature is not in operation to contribute to the discussion, but could be used for notifications by participants such as the need for a toilet break. The facilitator must clarify the goal of the meeting and the reasons why the participants have been invited to the discussion, which will help them identify with the subject, which in turn will assist the participants to relate to as a group rather than as an individual. At the beginning the facilitator must explain verbal consent to participate and that they are comfortable with that the focus group is being audio recorded. Facilitation occurs before, during, and after each focus group.

Morgan and Krueger (1998b) provide very useful insights into the role of the facilitator (who they refer to as the moderator) and stress that showing respect for the participants is one of the most influential factors affecting the quality of focus group results. The authors also advise that the facilitators should be moderating the discussion and not becoming a participant. The skills of the facilitation can require discipline, in that the facilitator must hold back personal opinions. Lastly, it is advocated that participants must feel comfortable with the facilitator, and this requires consideration to be given to factors such as gender, language, race, age, socioeconomic characteristics, and technical knowledge. It is crucial to be aware that each of these characteristics has the potential to restrict participants engagement and can occur when there is a perceived power differential between the facilitator and the participant or even between participants.

Facilitators should prepare themselves mentally for the focus group and engage in ‘small talk’ at the outset to put participants at ease. The facilitator should listen carefully to the discussion, anticipate the flow of the conversation, and be comfortable with pauses, which are acceptable. There may be a requirement to probe further in response to comments. Finally, in the end, it is the role of the facilitator to summarise the discussion. After the participants have left, it is useful for the facilitator to reflect on what has been said and record their observations, similarly this reflection process should also occur where two facilitators have been involved.

Section Summary

  • The facilitator plays an important role in ensuring participants are put at ease and feel comfortable to participate.
  • The facilitator should guide the flow of conversation, whilst ensuring participants all have the opportunity to speak.
  • The facilitator should consider the diversity of the group and be cognisant of any power dynamics or potential for the conversation to be restricted due to variations in the participants’ backgrounds.


This guide has provided practical guidance on the design, recruitment, and facilitation needed to conduct focus groups in your own research. Focus groups allow for powerful qualitative data collection, although good design and skillful conduction of sessions are needed to gain meaningful data. Used with a well-defined and focused purpose, the conversations captured during focus groups can provide much information about social phenomena. This guide has provided key advice on the considerations needed to conduct online focus groups, compared the differences between online and face-to-face focus groups, recommended sample size, the need to recruit a homogenous group of individuals, and some of the key skills needed to facilitate effectively.

It is the conversation that occurs between the participants that bring a heuristic value to the technique, to meet the cognitive goals of the research, and sets this method apart from others. We recognize that there are multiple realities, and this often depends on where a person is in the world or how they see things differently. Focus groups can be empowering for the focus group participants themselves and should be enjoyable for you as a facilitator to be a part of understanding the group dynamics and gaining deep insights into your area of study. They provide more nuanced and natural feedback than individual interviews. You are met with the privilege of hearing the participants’ stories and to address certain questions that may not be feasible via other data collection methods. It can certainly also be invaluable used in conjunction with other data collection methods.

Multiple-Choice Quiz Questions

What sets focus groups apart from most other forms of qualitative data collection?

What is a key advantage that conducting an online focus group has relative to delivery in-person?

What are the key sources of paperwork that are needed to run a focus group?

What is an important consideration to account for when recruiting participants for a focus group?

When facilitating a focus group, it is important to ______.

Further Reading

Barbour, R. S, & Morgan, D. L. (2017). A new era in focus group research. Palgrave Macmillan.
Flayelle, M., Brevers, D., Billieux, J., & Commentary on Englund et al. (2022). The advantages and downsides of online focus groups for conducting research on addictive online behaviours. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 117(8), 21422144.
Richard, B, Sivo, S. A, Orlowski, M, Ford, R. C, Murphy, J, Boote, D. N, & Witta, E. L. (2021). Qualitative research via focus groups: Will going online affect the diversity of your findings?Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), 3245.


Mansell, I., Bennett, G., Northway, R., Mead, D., & Moseley, L. (2004). The learning curve: The advantages and disadvantages in the use of focus groups as a method of data collection. Nurse Researcher, 11(4), 7988.
Kitzinger, J. (1995). Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 311(7000), 299302.
Morgan, D. L., & Krueger, R. A. (1998c). Moderating focus groups. Sage.
Oringderff, J. (2004). “My Way”: Piloting an online focus group. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(3), 6975.
O.Nyumba, T, Wilson, K, Derrick, C. J, Mukherjee, N, & Geneletti, D. (2018). The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9(1), 2032.
Cyr, J. (2019). Focus groups for the social science researcher. Cambridge University Press.
Halliday, M., Mill, D., Johnson, J., & Lee, K. (2021). Let’s talk virtual! Online focus group facilitation for the modern researcher. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy, 17(12), 21452150.
Hennink, M., & Kaiser, B. N. (2021). Sample sizes for saturation in qualitative research: A systematic review of empirical tests. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 292, 114523.
Krueger, R. A, & Casey, M. A. (2015). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (
5th ed
.). Sage Publications.
Marques, I. C. D. S., Theiss, L. M., & Johnson, C. Y, et al. (2021). Implementation of virtual focus groups for qualitative data collection in a global pandemic. American Journal of Surgery, 221(5), 918922.
Merton, R. K, & Kendall, P. L. (1946). The focused interview. American Journal of Sociology, 51(6), 541557.
Morgan, D. L., & Krueger, R. A. (1998b). Developing questions for focus groups. Sage.
Morgan, D. L, Krueger, R. A, & Scannell, A. U. (1998). Planning focus groups. Sage.
Morgan, D. L, David, M, & Krueger, R. A. (1998). The focus group guidebook. Sage.
Morgan, D. L., & Krueger, R. A. (1998a). Analyzing and reporting focus group results. In Focus Group Kit (
6th ed
.). Sage.
Rezabek, R. J. (2000). Online focus groups: Electronic discussions for research. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(1), 120.

APPENDIX 1 - Sample of an Informed Consent Sheet

Project Title:

Principal investigator:

Your Name (your email)

I, the undersigned, confirm that (please tick box as appropriate):


I have read and understood the information about the project, as provided in the Participant Information Sheet.


I have been given the opportunity to ask questions about the project and my participation.


I voluntarily agree to participate in the project.


I understand I can decline to participate, choose not to answer questions, or cease my participation early without penalty and without needing to explain why.


I understand that I will be audio recorded.


The procedures regarding confidentiality have been clearly explained (e.g. use of pseudonyms and anonymisation of data) to me.


The use of the data in research, publications, sharing and archiving has been explained to me.


I understand that other researchers will have access to this data only if they agree to preserve the confidentiality of the data and if they agree to the terms I have specified in this form.


I, along with the Researcher, agree to sign and date this informed consent form.


Name of Participant Signature Date

________________________ ___________________________ __________________


________________________ ___________________________ __________________

Name of Researcher Signature Date

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