Measuring Attitudes


Measurement of attitudes requires understanding of theoretical and cognitive characteristics as well as practical considerations of the survey measurement process. Given the subjective nature of attitudes, several elements may influence how individuals report them, including context effects in a survey questionnaire, response biases due to social interactions between respondents and interviewers, social norms in society, and the very nature of the topics being asked. This entry provides a broad perspective of the measurement process in general and how sources of measurement error may have an impact on measures.

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