Using an article focused on national identity in post-communist Czech Republic as a practical example, this case study shows how to empirically assess a research problem with the help of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. This article analyses attitudes of national pride and ethnic exclusionism and their interrelations in the Czech Republic for the year 2003. Data are drawn from the International Social Survey Programme National Identity Module 2003. First, confirmatory factor analysis is used to establish the multidimensionality of national pride and of ethnic exclusionism. Second, the interrelationships between different dimensions of national pride and of ethnic exclusionism are analysed using structural equation modelling. The case study reviews the basic concepts, terminology and applications of structural equation modelling.