This case study describes the qualitative data collection and analytic strategies used to understand the psychological and social factors that influence the health behaviors of middle-aged and older African American men. In this case study, we provide the conceptual and methodological rationale driving the decision to conduct thematic analyses of semi-structured individual interviews. We discuss the influence of gender, race/ethnicity, and notions of health to promote healthy behavior among this population. Personal characteristics and psychosocial factors, such as gender, age, and personal values, are critical determinants of health to explicate and incorporate in interventions to improve healthy behavior because they shape where health fits among other life goals and priorities. This research builds on a robust line of formative work by the authors and colleagues emerging from the effort to determine how to most effectively motivate middle-aged and older African American men to eat healthier and be more physically active.