With the global surge in aging population, there is increasing attention to develop and utilize evidence-based cognitive training programs as potential tools to slow down the age-related cognitive decline. Employing a randomized controlled trial design, we evaluated the efficacy of a pen-paper-based cognitive intervention program on three different cognitive profiles (i.e., cognitively healthy, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia) of older adults in Singapore. This program, namely, Active Brain Learning, was modified from the original cognitive intervention program known as Learning Therapy in Japan. The training components consist of simple arithmetic calculation and reading aloud which were adapted and contextualized to suit the local older adults. Historical influences and sociocultural contexts played significant roles in the development and implementation of the Active Brain Learning program. In this case, we discuss the research and methodological approaches as well as the issues and challenges of evaluating the efficacy of the Active Brain Learning program on cognition and general well-being of older adults within the community and in senior daycare facilities. Concerted effort from all stakeholders would be essential toward bridging the gap between research implementation and the ground realities to meet the changing needs of the aging population.