Understanding Statistical Analysis and Modeling is a text for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in the social, behavioral, or managerial sciences seeking to understand the logic of statistical analysis. Robert Bruhl covers all the basic methods of descriptive and inferential statistics in an accessible manner by way of asking and answering research questions. Concepts are discussed in the context of a specific research project and the book includes probability theory as the basis for understanding statistical inference. Instructions on using SPSS® are included so that readers focus on interpreting statistical analysis rather than calculations. Tables are used, rather than formulas, to describe the various calculations involved with statistical analysis and the exercises in the book are intended to encourage students to formulate and execute their own empirical investigations.

# Part Two: Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

### Organizing and Describing a Set of Observations

All statistical analysis begins with the process of sorting and counting, and the result is a report in which each of the observed values of the property is listed along with the number of phenomena having that value for the property. This is said to be a frequency distribution report, indicating the pattern (frequency) by which the different property values were found to be “distributed” among the phenomena. In an additional step, the report may be modified by showing the “relative” frequency of each value by dividing the frequency by the total number of observations. This is said to result in a “relative frequency” distribution report. Depending on the type of property being assessed, the frequency ...

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