Understanding Statistical Analysis and Modeling is a text for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in the social, behavioral, or managerial sciences seeking to understand the logic of statistical analysis. Robert Bruhl covers all the basic methods of descriptive and inferential statistics in an accessible manner by way of asking and answering research questions. Concepts are discussed in the context of a specific research project and the book includes probability theory as the basis for understanding statistical inference. Instructions on using SPSS® are included so that readers focus on interpreting statistical analysis rather than calculations. Tables are used, rather than formulas, to describe the various calculations involved with statistical analysis and the exercises in the book are intended to encourage students to formulate and execute their own empirical investigations.

# Chapter 10: Estimation Studies : Inferring the Parameters of a Population from the Statistics of a Sample

### 10.0 Learning Objectives

In this chapter, we discuss the construction and interpretation of estimation studies. Our learning objectives include the following:

• using a sample to estimate the characteristics of a property of a population when the property is qualitative/categorical;
• using a sample to estimate the characteristics of a property of a population when the property is quantitative/scale; and
• a brief discussion of the practical problems of sampling.

### 10.1 Motivation

In Chapter 2, we described the scenario in which an investigator is interested in characterizing a large set of phenomena with regard to a particular property, but all the phenomena of interest cannot be observed for logistical reasons. For example, a sociologist might be interested in ...