Over the past decade, a new set of interactive, open, participatory and networked spatial media have become widespread. These include mapping platforms, virtual globes, user-generated spatial databases, geodesign and architectural and planning tools, urban dashboards and citizen reporting geo-systems, augmented reality media, and locative media. Collectively these produce and mediate spatial big data and are re-shaping spatial knowledge, spatial behaviour, and spatial politics. Understanding Spatial Media brings together leading scholars from around the globe to examine these new spatial media, their attendant technologies, spatial data, and their social, economic and political effects. The 22 chapters are divided into the following sections: • Spatial media technologies • Spatial data and spatial media • The consequences of spatial media Understanding Spatial Media is the perfect introduction to this fast emerging phenomena for students and practitioners of geography, urban studies, data science, and media and communications.

Volunteered Geographic Information and Citizen Science

Volunteered Geographic Information and Citizen Science

Muki Haklay


This chapter explores the related areas of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) and citizen science. VGI is defined as digital geographical information that is generated and shared by individuals. VGI can be viewed as the part of user-generated content that has become a major element of spatial media over the past two decades. Within VGI, geographical information is an integral part of the digital media object – for example, the coordinates embedded in the exchangeable image file format (Exif) of a picture taken with a digital camera (Goodchild, 2007). Citizen science, on the other hand, is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as ‘scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often ...

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