This book covers the essential information needed to understand the problems involved in translating existing questionnaires and other paper and pencil instruments from one language toanother as well as to apply methods for dealing with them. It will show researchers how to identify the problems (comparison of parameters, nomological nets, and semantic problems) with an existing instrument; how to solve each of these problems with step-by-step guidelines; and, techniques for reconstructing an instrument or designing an original one to use with different cultural groups. This book will provide researchers with a guide for construction of cross-national survey instruments.

Solving Normative Problems

Each society has its own set of norms or conventions that influence individual behaviors. Normative problems for cross-cultural researchers exist when one or more of three kinds of conventions differ from the source to the target society:

  • The openness with which particular topics are discussed
  • The manner in which ideas are expressed
  • The way in which strangers, particularly strangers asking questions, are ...
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