This Second Edition of The Tao of Statistics: A Path to Understanding (With No Math) provides a reader-friendly approach to statistics in plain English. Unlike other statistics books, this text explains what statistics mean and how they are used, rather than how to calculate them. The book walks readers through basic concepts as well as some of the most complex statistical models in use. The Second Edition adds coverage of big data to better address its impact on p-values and other key concepts; material on small data to show readers how to handle data with fewer data points than optimal; and other new topics like missing data and effect sizes. The book’s two characters (a high school principal and a director of public health) return in the revised edition, with their examples expanded and updated with reference to contemporary concerns in the fields of education and health.

Expectations—Chi-Square

Image 43
  • Flexible
  • Useful
  • Friendly

Proportions often are tested for their equivalence (no difference, null hypothesis) using chi-square statistics. Although chi-square can take many forms for many related purposes, almost all incarnations ask whether the proportional distribution in one group is equivalent to that of another (or more than one other), without leaning on the normal curve for support. This freedom from the normal curve makes chi-square useful for data that blatantly are not normally distributed. If someone wanted to know whether voting patterns along political party lines differed for school superintendents versus police chiefs, a chi-square would be a good statistical test to use.

Both the high school principal and the director of public health will use chi-square statistics in their work. This class of statistical tests ...

locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles