This Second Edition of The Tao of Statistics: A Path to Understanding (With No Math) provides a reader-friendly approach to statistics in plain English. Unlike other statistics books, this text explains what statistics mean and how they are used, rather than how to calculate them. The book walks readers through basic concepts as well as some of the most complex statistical models in use. The Second Edition adds coverage of big data to better address its impact on p-values and other key concepts; material on small data to show readers how to handle data with fewer data points than optimal; and other new topics like missing data and effect sizes. The book’s two characters (a high school principal and a director of public health) return in the revised edition, with their examples expanded and updated with reference to contemporary concerns in the fields of education and health.

Ratio

• The rare ruler
• The flexible measure
• Precious property

A ratio level of measurement scale has a true zero and is the trophy of data types. Weight and height are examples. We can say that half of 100 pounds is 50 pounds, and twice 6 feet is 12 feet. In other words, we can form interpretable ratios. These types of data are almost carefree in their use with regard to their level of measurement (assumptions on their distributions is another story, which will be told shortly).

The high school maintains basic health information in the nurse’s office on such things as height, weight, and inoculations, but the high school principal would likely need a good reason to be granted access to many of these data. The principal ...

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