How we understand and define qualitative data is changing, with implications not only for the techniques of data analysis, but also how data are collected. New devices, technologies and online spaces open up new ways for researchers to approach and collect images, moving images, text and talk. The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection systematically explores the approaches, techniques, debates and new frontiers for creating, collecting and producing qualitative data. Bringing together contributions from internationally leading scholars in the field, the handbook offers a state-of-the-art look at key themes across six thematic parts: Part I Charting the Routes Part II Concepts, Contexts, Basics Part III Types of Data and How to Collect Them Part IV Digital and Internet Data Part V Triangulation and Mixed Methods Part VI Collecting Data in Specific Populations

Collecting Qualitative Data with Hard-to-Reach Groups

Collecting Qualitative Data with Hard-to-Reach Groups

Kerry Chamberlain Darrin Hodgetts


The key concern of this chapter is ‘hard-to-reach', what that means, and how we might generate qualitative research data working with the hard-to-reach. We first discuss what hard-to-reach might mean, and then consider pertinent issues for data collection with hard-to-reach groups – access (see Bengry, Chapter 7, this volume), gatekeeping, and sampling (see Schreier, Chapter 6, this volume), methods for qualitative research, and ethical concerns (see Mertens, Chapter 3, this volume), that can arise in working with such groups. We contend that most researchers tend to consider field research with the hard-to-reach as a difficult activity, requiring special care and attention, with strong possibilities of denied ...

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