How we understand and define qualitative data is changing, with implications not only for the techniques of data analysis, but also how data are collected. New devices, technologies and online spaces open up new ways for researchers to approach and collect images, moving images, text and talk. The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection systematically explores the approaches, techniques, debates and new frontiers for creating, collecting and producing qualitative data. Bringing together contributions from internationally leading scholars in the field, the handbook offers a state-of-the-art look at key themes across six thematic parts: Part I Charting the Routes Part II Concepts, Contexts, Basics Part III Types of Data and How to Collect Them Part IV Digital and Internet Data Part V Triangulation and Mixed Methods Part VI Collecting Data in Specific Populations

Triangulation in Data Collection

Uwe Flick


Triangulation as an Explicit and Implicit Principle

Triangulation has a long history in qualitative and social research as an implicit and explicit concept. The principle behind triangulation was used before the concept itself was introduced and formulated in the social sciences, thus it can be seen as an implicit concept in the history of qualitative research. The explicit concept was introduced in the 1970s by Norman Denzin (1970) who built on the earlier works of Campbell and Fiske (1959) and Webb et al. (1966). Over the years the concept ‘triangulation’ has not only been stimulating in the methodological discussion and research practice but also an issue for sometimes harsh debates about its adequacy. The concept ...

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