How we understand and define qualitative data is changing, with implications not only for the techniques of data analysis, but also how data are collected. New devices, technologies and online spaces open up new ways for researchers to approach and collect images, moving images, text and talk. The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection systematically explores the approaches, techniques, debates and new frontiers for creating, collecting and producing qualitative data. Bringing together contributions from internationally leading scholars in the field, the handbook offers a state-of-the-art look at key themes across six thematic parts: Part I Charting the Routes Part II Concepts, Contexts, Basics Part III Types of Data and How to Collect Them Part IV Digital and Internet Data Part V Triangulation and Mixed Methods Part VI Collecting Data in Specific Populations

Sounds as Data

Michael Bull

We identify two broad methodological strands: sonic ethnographies, which rely on both conventionally written and more-than-textual representations of sonic qualities; and soundscape studies, which encompass a wide range of methods, including field recording, sound mapping and sound walks. (Gallagher and Prior, 2014, p. 272)


Gallagher and Prior highlight two modes of researching the sonic, the first which has been dominent is the use of a variety of methods that, whilst focusing upon sound – use methods that other disciplines also use, such as qualitative interviewing, the use of historical documents and the like. The second research mode is one where sound is treated as ‘sound’ rather than being translated into another medium, such as text. This ...

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