Apply statistics to your everyday life. Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science helps students to build a strong foundational understanding of statistics by providing clarity around when and why statistics useful. Rather than focusing on the “how to” of statistics, author Eric J. Krieg simplifies the complexity of statistical calculations by introducing only what is necessary to understanding each concept. Every chapter is written around and applied to a different social problem or issues–enabling students to broaden their imagination about the statistical “tools” that can be used to make sense of our world and, maybe, to make the world a better place. In addition to updating all the tables and examples with new data, the Second Edition has replaced the section on SPSS with three new sets of exercises at the end of each chapter:  1. Chapter Exercises for students complete during their reading and bring questions to class,  2. In-Class Exercises that focus on the areas that students struggled with during their reading, and  3.  Homework Exercises that can be assigned if students need extra practice with the concepts.

# Frequency Tables

Frequency Tables

### Introduction

It is said that most communication is nonverbal and that a picture contains a thousand words. It can also be said that a table might contain nearly as many words as a picture. Scientists of all fields make extensive use of tables because they are excellent tools with which to communicate large amounts of data in very concise ways using frequencies and percentages. Therefore, it is important to know not only how to read tables but also how to create them. In this chapter, we learn how to read and construct a frequency table. Another type of table, called a cross-tabulation table, is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 8.

Data: Characteristics that can be empirically observed and measured.

Frequency: The ...