Apply statistics to your everyday life. Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science helps students to build a strong foundational understanding of statistics by providing clarity around when and why statistics useful. Rather than focusing on the “how to” of statistics, author Eric J. Krieg simplifies the complexity of statistical calculations by introducing only what is necessary to understanding each concept. Every chapter is written around and applied to a different social problem or issues–enabling students to broaden their imagination about the statistical “tools” that can be used to make sense of our world and, maybe, to make the world a better place. In addition to updating all the tables and examples with new data, the Second Edition has replaced the section on SPSS with three new sets of exercises at the end of each chapter:  1. Chapter Exercises for students complete during their reading and bring questions to class,  2. In-Class Exercises that focus on the areas that students struggled with during their reading, and  3.  Homework Exercises that can be assigned if students need extra practice with the concepts.

Measures of Association for Categorical Variables

Measures of Association for Categorical Variables

Measures of Association for Categorical Variables

Introduction

Measures of association are statistics that allow us to express the degree to which changes in one variable covary with changes in another variable. They enable us to express this covariation with a single number that ranges between 0 and 1. The closer a measure is to 1.0, the stronger the association. An example of an association is income and race. Whites tend to have higher income than blacks. Another example is income and education. People with more education tend to have more income than people with less education. The strength of these and other patterns can be expressed statistically.

Direction of association is an important part of understanding association in general. ...