Apply statistics to your everyday life. Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science helps students to build a strong foundational understanding of statistics by providing clarity around when and why statistics useful. Rather than focusing on the “how to” of statistics, author Eric J. Krieg simplifies the complexity of statistical calculations by introducing only what is necessary to understanding each concept. Every chapter is written around and applied to a different social problem or issues–enabling students to broaden their imagination about the statistical “tools” that can be used to make sense of our world and, maybe, to make the world a better place. In addition to updating all the tables and examples with new data, the Second Edition has replaced the section on SPSS with three new sets of exercises at the end of each chapter:  1. Chapter Exercises for students complete during their reading and bring questions to class,  2. In-Class Exercises that focus on the areas that students struggled with during their reading, and  3.  Homework Exercises that can be assigned if students need extra practice with the concepts.

# Cross-tabulation and Chi-Square

### Cross-tabulation and Chi-Square

Cross-tabulation and Chi-Square

### Introduction

Our discussions of statistical significance have so far focused exclusively on particular statistics, specifically means and percentages. But data are often presented in tables that contain lots of frequencies and percents (such as frequency tables). Suppose we are trying to assess the statistical significance of a table. How do we go about determining whether trends in a table are statistically significant? In this chapter, we extend our understanding of how data can be presented in tabular form to include cross-tabulation tables. We also learn the most common measure of statistical significance used for frequency and cross-tabulation tables, a statistic known as the chi-square measure of statistical significance, or simply chi-square2).

Cross-tabulation table (also known as a ...