Apply statistics to your everyday life. Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science helps students to build a strong foundational understanding of statistics by providing clarity around when and why statistics useful. Rather than focusing on the “how to” of statistics, author Eric J. Krieg simplifies the complexity of statistical calculations by introducing only what is necessary to understanding each concept. Every chapter is written around and applied to a different social problem or issues–enabling students to broaden their imagination about the statistical “tools” that can be used to make sense of our world and, maybe, to make the world a better place. In addition to updating all the tables and examples with new data, the Second Edition has replaced the section on SPSS with three new sets of exercises at the end of each chapter:  1. Chapter Exercises for students complete during their reading and bring questions to class,  2. In-Class Exercises that focus on the areas that students struggled with during their reading, and  3.  Homework Exercises that can be assigned if students need extra practice with the concepts.

# Probability—From Samples to Statistics

### Probability—From Samples to Statistics

Probability—From Samples to Statistics

### Introduction

We have learned the basic concepts that underlie the theory of probability and how to apply the addition rule, the multiplication rule, and the normal curve to our analysis. As stated in Chapter 5, dealing with probability in theory and in reality are two different processes. We now turn our attention to addressing probability when we are working with data that come from samples, in other words, data that vary from the theoretical ideal types discussed in Chapter 5.

Do female students tend to have higher grade point averages than male students? How do we know that freshmen are the most likely students to drop out of college? How do we know that students prefer one ...