The SAGE Handbook of Research Methods in Political Science and International Relations offers a comprehensive overview of research processes in social science - from the ideation and design of research projects, through the construction of theoretical arguments, to conceptualization, measurement, and data collection, and quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis - exposited through 65 major new contributions from leading international methodologists. Each chapter surveys, builds upon, and extends the modern state of the art in its area. Following through its six-part organization, undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practicing academics will be guided through the design, methods, and analysis of issues in Political Science and International Relations: Part One: Formulating Good Research Questions and Designing Good Research Projects; Part Two: Methods of Theoretical Argumentation; Part Three: Conceptualization and Measurement; Part Four: Large-Scale Data Collection and Representation Methods; Part Five: Quantitative-Empirical Methods; Part Six: Qualitative and Mixed Methods.

Multilevel Analysis

Marco Steenbergen

In Man, the State, and War, Waltz (1959) outlines three different levels of analysis that help us understand war: individuals, states, and international systems. In international relations, political science, and public administration, it is common that a phenomenon can be approached at different levels. Rather than settling on one of those levels, it would be of considerable interest to bring them together into a single data-analytic framework. This is precisely what multilevel analysis offers.

Over the past three decades, statisticians have made major breakthroughs in the analysis of multilevel data structures. Where such analysis was once limited to continuous outcomes and balanced data, it is now possible to analyze unbalanced data for categorical and limited dependent variables, as well as continuous outcomes. ...

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