Stressing the link between research and theory-building, this concise book shows students how new knowledge is discovered through the process of research. The author presents a model that ties together research processes across the various traditions and shows how different types of research interrelate. The book is sophisticated in its presentation, but provides explanation of higher-level concepts in an accessible and engaging manner. Throughout the book, the author treats research methodologies as universal and logically appropriate ways of answering a wide range of interesting questions, rather than just a set of tools to be applied. The book is an excellent guide for students who will be consumers of research and who need to understand how theory and research interrelate.
This chapter presents a basic overview of some of the basic methods used to test quantitative hypotheses. It explains how researchers test hypotheses to see whether patterns exist linking the behavior of hypothesized independent to dependent variables. The primary discussion involves the use of inferential statistics in hypothesis testing, but it also looks at the role that nonstatistical “critical tests” play in confirming or disconfirming nonprobabilistic phenomena.
The chapter starts “from scratch” in discussing concepts like statistical significance before building up to a more sophisticated discussion of a variety of types of statistical tests that one encounters in scholarly research. The investigation of statistical methods uses ordinary least squares (OLS) regression as the jumping-off point for explaining many of the major statistical concepts. ...