This bestselling textbook is designed to help students understand parametric and nonparametric statistical methods so that they can tackle research problems successfully. By working through this book carefully and systematically, those who may not have a strong background in mathematics will gain a thorough grasp of the most widely used statistical methods in the social sciences.

Measuring Typical Achievement

5.1 Introduction

We said in 1.1 above that one meaning of statistics is to do with describing quantitative data. Suppose those data are scores on a personality measure. Describing such a set of scores involves giving information about two aspects of their composition.

Personality scores, like most other measures of human dispositions ...

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