Through a rejection of the traditional separation between the researcher and the research setting, this volume discusses a philosophy in which the researcher is fully involved in the process of organizational learning and change. William Foote Whyte and his collaborators outline the theory and methods behind participatory action research, weigh up its strengths and weaknesses and then present cases where this research strategy has been used in both industry and agriculture from a variety of countries on four continents.

Comparing PAR and Action Science

Comparing PAR and Action Science


Because I agree with Argyris and Schön that PAR and action science are closely related, this chapter is not a rebuttal but simply an extension of the discussion. I compare the two strategies in the following terms.

Action science (AS) focuses more heavily on interpersonal relations and intrapsychic processes. AS calls for a detached observer to document in detail ...

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