KEY FEATURES: A student-friendly writing style makes the content more approachable for readers to retain. Personal stories from fellows of the Association of Psychological Science (APS) convey to readers that even the most distinguished experts make mistakes that can be avoided through examination. Critical thinking questions give students the opportunity to reflect on preceding essays. Stories from all areas of psychology appeal to learners beyond subfields of psychology.

Reliability Is not Readiness

Reliability Is not Readiness

C. J. Brainerd

My biggest research mistake occurred some years ago, when I used a confounded measure of children’s readiness to learn to investigate their ability to learn some basic logical and scientific concepts. In retrospect, there were two reasons for this error. One was groupthink—so many others were doing the same thing. The other was conceptual bias. I was seduced by a hypothesis that was in fashion at the time, and the experience taught me just how insidious confirmation bias can be.

Developmental psychologists have soft spots in their hearts for the idea that the unfolding of psychological traits during infancy and childhood is innate, which one of our late brethren, Sheldon White, aptly summarized ...

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