KEY FEATURES: A student-friendly writing style makes the content more approachable for readers to retain. Personal stories from fellows of the Association of Psychological Science (APS) convey to readers that even the most distinguished experts make mistakes that can be avoided through examination. Critical thinking questions give students the opportunity to reflect on preceding essays. Stories from all areas of psychology appeal to learners beyond subfields of psychology.

Thinking More Is More When Less Is More

Thinking More Is More When Less Is More

E. Tory Higgins

Right from the start, I made my biggest research mistake. I was a psychology graduate student at Columbia University planning my doctoral research. My “burning issue” was interpersonal communication. A major communication issue in those days (early 1970s) was the extent to which communicators took the characteristics of their audience into account when formulating and transmitting their message. According to Grice’s cooperative principle (Grice 1975), they should do so. But does everyone do so?

According to Piaget (1926), young children (preschoolers) can fail to take into account that what they know about something is different from what their audience knows, thereby producing “egocentric,” noncooperative messages (see also Flavell, Botkin, ...

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