Designed to provide researchers clear and informative insight into techniques of meta-analysis, the Third Edition of Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. It is the only book that presents a full and usable treatment of the role of study artifacts in distorting study results, as well as methods for correcting results for such biases and errors.

Study Artifacts and their Impact on Study Outcomes

In this chapter, we look at how research artifacts distort correlational research findings. Later, in Chapter 6, we look at how these same artifacts distort findings in experimental research. The goal of a meta-analysis of correlations is a description of the distribution of actual (i.e., construct-level) correlations between a given independent and a given dependent variable. If all studies were conducted perfectly, then the distribution of study correlations could be used directly to estimate the distribution of actual correlations. However, studies are never perfect. As a result, the relationship between study correlations and actual correlations is more complicated.

There are many dimensions along which studies fail to be perfect. Thus, there are many forms of error ...

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