Methods in Psychological Research introduces students to the rich world of research in psychology through student-friendly writing, compelling real-world examples, and frequent opportunities for practice. Using a relaxed yet supportive tone that eases student anxiety, the authors present a mixture of conceptual and practical discussions, and spark reader interest in research by covering meaningful topics that resonate with today’s students. In-text features like Conceptual Exercises, FYI sections, and FAQ sections with accompanying visual cues support learning throughout the research experience. The Fourth Edition equips students with the tools they need to understand research concepts, conduct their own experiments, and present their findings.

Nonexperimental Research : Finding Relationships Among Variables

Nonexperimental Research : Finding Relationships Among Variables


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After studying this chapter, students should be able to

  • Compare quasi-experiments with true experiments and devise a study using a time-series and a nonequivalent-groups design
  • Assess the special problems associated with longitudinal research
  • Describe how cross-sectional research differs from longitudinal research
  • Explain how case study research differs from single-participant research
  • Assess the inferential limitations of correlational research

In Chapters 7, 8, and 9, we discussed various experimental designs. We do experimental research to determine cause and effect. The experimenter wants to determine if some treatment (i.e., the independent variable) affects some measure of behavior (i.e., the dependent variable). Finding causal relationships is an important research activity.And the true experiment offers the most control over variables and therefore is the best approach for ruling ...

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