Clearly reviews the properties of important contemporary measures of association and correlation. Liebetrau devotes full chapters to measures for nominal, ordinal, and continuous (interval) data, paying special attention to the sampling distributions needed to determine levels of significance and confidence intervals. Valuable discussions also focus on the relationships between various measures, the sampling properties of their estimators and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different approaches.

Correlation and Causation

It is appropriate to conclude this monograph on a note of caution. When two variables have been shown to be correlated, it is indeed tempting to infer a cause-and-effect relationship between them. Most measures, however, treat the variables symmetrically (the value of the measure remains the ...

locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles