What are the essentials for undergraduates and postgraduates engaged in quantitative and qualitative research? How can the gap between formulating a research question and carrying out research be bridged? This accessible, well-judged text provides students with a matchless introduction to generic research skills. It is uncluttered, direct and unpatronizing. Key features of the book are: - Accessibility - Clarification of key issues and problem solving guidance - Demonstration of the importance of interplay between theory and research - Realism in defining essential research issues and the problems that researchers encounter. `It is not the case that anyone can do social research", most research requires training. Here Malcolm Williams provides such training.. Helpful and often humorous' - Roger Sapsford, University of Teesside"

Analysing Survey Data

In this chapter:

  • Cases, variables and the data matrix
  • Missing data
  • Univariate analysis
  • Probability
  • Central tendency and dispersion
  • Bivariate analysis
  • Elaboration
  • Statistical significance
  • Hypothesis testing
  • Correlation
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Regression
  • Modelling and its limitations

Data analysis is the least scary part of research. After all, most of the difficult tasks such as designing and executing the research are done and if you are to start analysing then it implies there is something to analyse! It is also less scary now than it used to be. The software interface between the researcher and the data is very much more user friendly than even a decade ago and the amount of statistical or mathematical knowledge needed is minimal.

In this chapter I will assume a number of things. First of all I will assume that at least some thought has ...

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