Reviews sampling methods used in surveys: simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratification, cluster and multi-stage sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, two-phase sampling, replicated sampling, panel designs, and non-probability sampling. Kalton discusses issues of practical implementation, including frame problems and non-response, and gives examples of sample designs for a national face-to-face interview survey and for a telephone survey. He also treats the use of weights in survey analysis, the computation of sampling errors with complex sampling designs, and the determination of sample size.

Other Probability Designs

In combination, the sampling methods discussed in the previous chapters are sufficient to handle most sampling problems. There are, however, three other design features that are applicable in certain circumstances and deserve some attention: two-phase sampling, replicated sampling and panel designs. These three designs are reviewed in this chapter.

Two-Phase Sampling

In two-phase, or double, sampling, certain items of information are collected for an initial, or first-phase, sample, then further items are collected at the second phase from a subsample of the initial sample. The method may be extended to more phases (multiphase sampling), but for most purposes two phases suffice.

One use for two-phase sampling arises when the levels of precision needed for different estimates from a survey are not compatible, implying that different sample ...

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